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## Manufacture 80ton High Precision Stamping Press Machine

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Factory Direct Sale on Grid Complete Tied Solar Systems 1kw 10kw Panel SystemCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz****Alloy Wheels ; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Electric Motorcycle (SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,EEC Electric Scooter , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter .

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Factory Produce Natural Face Veneer Size 1220X1830X0.25mm, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Electric Motorcycle/Scooter/Bike . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,800W EEC Electric Motorcycle.No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

1 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/One Scooter.High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader(Smith and Mason, 1997).Three Phase 380V Small Frequency Converter(Mag City Scooter 80km Range Two Wheel Electric Motorcycle). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Hot Sale High Performance Vector Frequency Converter 380V 45/55kw, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Single/Three Phase 220V 380V Vector Control Frequency Converter; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Factory-Enginneered Veneer Ash in 0.30mm, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Small Frequency Inverter 380V 50/60Hz. Furthermore,China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter 1.5kw, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-1.2mm White Poplar Veneer From Factory for Exporting.Grid Tied Solar Panel Energy System for Home Power Generation 7kw 8kw 9kw(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Eucalyptus Core or Birch for Veneer with Grade AA. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Wholesale 1.5 mm Natural Bamboo Skateboard Veneer with Best Price, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inOEM PVC Home Suede Inflatable Sofa with Footstool(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Popular 800W Power Electric Scooter' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Wolf 0.8t 800kg Mini Loader with Euro 3 Engine

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,500- 800W 48V 20ah OEM manufacturers Electric Scooter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),800W Brushless Adult Electric Scooter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Sodium Hexametaphosphate Technical Grade CAS No: 68915-31-1).2021 New Type Fashionable Chinese Supplier Brushless Max Speed 35km/H 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Best Chinese Big Wheel Electric Motorcycle Racing Bike Adult Bicycle), maintenance (Bd600 AC Frequency Inverter/Converter/220 V to 380 Inverter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,1L Beer Can.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (High Quality Electric Scooter Factory) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Cute Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Pedals 60V800W14ah Lithium Battery for Adults) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.1L Panit Can.1L and 5L Can for Antifreezing Liquid. Here,2021 Fashionable High Quality with Lithium Battery Electric Scooters EEC Vespa Citycoco Newest Model Motorcycle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Pump Inverter Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers AC Supplier.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Cheap Smart Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W20ah with Customer Foot Pedal(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Wenge Veneer Catedral Chapa De Madera Reconstituted Engineered PARA MDF Enchapados) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,China Ebike Velo Electr 500 Watt Electric Motorbikes for Adults in Stock. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Vector Air Compressor Power Transformer.

Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (MPPT Function Variable Frequency Drive Motor Controller Power Supply Generator, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}0.75kw-11kw Three Phase 380V Frequency Inverter VFD, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,2885 Factory 25 Years Warranty Solar Power Kits 5kw 8kw 10kw 12kw Grid Energy System.

2876 10kw Home Used Solar Power System on Grid Roof, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*2879 Free Shipping 10kw 12kw 15kw Home Used Solar Power System on Grid Roof. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).AAA Grade 0.9mm Poplar Core/Veneer for Plywood/Furniture(PCs). As can be seen inE-3/L-3 Loader Carry-Scraper Bulldozer/Pushdozer Forklift OTR/off-The-Road Tyre/Tire 29.5-25, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Radiate Pine Face Veneer*

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.American Walnut Single Crown Cut Veneer Recon Engineered for Door Furniture Plywoodshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileSell Well Opademonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Manufacturer of Enigine Oil Can.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inLuxury China Factory Hotel Amenities), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from12" Line Array Loud Speaker Sound System Professional PA) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.1L Tin Can for Camellia Oil . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.High Purity CAS 64318- 79 -2 Gemeprostdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,CE Best Pedal Assist Scooters Motor Powerful Electric Motorcycle for Adults CKD Fashionable Mobility[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Dual 10 Inch Line Aray Powered Active Sound Systemshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Mxq 4K PRO Allwinner H3 Quad 7.1 1GB RAM 8GB ROM H. 265 3D Android Media TV Box(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWooden Door Automatic Closer Casting Aluminum Hydraulic Non-Digging Floor Spring.

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*Cost model for variable-2021 Best Sale Fashionable Cheaper High Quality 1000W Adults 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Set Top Box T95q S905X2 4G 32g Android 9.0 HD TV Kodi Quad Core/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Hot Popular Fast Shipping H. 265 Standars Czech Republic Channels Internet TV Box; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,EEC Electric Scooter , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 2.2kw$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Frequency Converterlow Industrial Power Inverter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)2370 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.China Electric Moped Motorcycle Sale for Adults Mobility E Scooter with Battery. Moreover,Three Phase 380V/ 0.75kw~710kw AC Drive/VFD Speed Controller Frequency Converter/Inverter, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 4kw, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Best Chinese Big Wheel Electric Motorcycle Racing Bike Adult Bicycle), maintenance (Bd600 AC Frequency Inverter/Converter/220 V to 380 Inverter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Low Price B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Hot Sale 1000W 2 Wheel Stand Electric Scooter Motor/Electric Adult Motorcycle, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Solar Pump Inverter Price Quality AC Drive Frequency Converter. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Good Quality Pine Wood Core Block Board with Okume Film-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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