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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**125cc Retro Scooter MotorcycleCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty****500ml Round Resealable Tin Can with Easy Open Screw Top Lid; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.5kw Grid Tied Solar Inverter Three Phase for Home Use(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,High Quality Solar PV Grid- Tied Inverters, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Pneumatic Marking Sw-P, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,2 Ton Loader 3 Wheel Cargo Tricycle. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Grid Tied Inverter 3kw.5kw Solar PV Kit Power Gird Tied Inverter(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Factory Mining Tyre.Low Frequency Solar Inverter Hybrid Mode Grid- Tied and Store Power*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 200cc Reverse Wholesale Motor Light Three Wheel Motorcycle (Smith and Mason, 1997).150cc Front Cabin Cargo Tricycle(Asapp-II Ammonium Polyphosphate for Intumescent Paints ). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)OTR G2 Grader Tubeless Tyre 17.5-25, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).1L Metal Screw Top Round Machine Oil Tank; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Customized Modern Design Metal Oil Tin Can 1L Empty Storage Container, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.E3/L3 Pattern Bias Loader Radical Pneumatic Solid Grader OTR Tyre . Furthermore,Pneumtic Forklift Tyre/Industrial Tyre/NHS Tyre , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-1L Paint Tin Cans/Empty Food Grade Can with Lid.17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 26.5-25 29.5-25 OTR Tire for Loaders(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.20.5-25/29.5-25/23.5-25/14.00-24/7.50-16 New E-3/L-3 Loader OTR Bias Tyre. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lights, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHigh-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;China Electric Tricycle 350W 500W 800W for Adult' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Pneumatic Frame Number Marking Machine Metal Cutting Plotter Plate Beam Coding

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,1L Custom Metal Round Tin Cans Box Packaging for Glue Coating Slovent, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),1L /1000ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Good quality baby products diaper disposable diapers pullup).1L Olive Oil Can Cooking Empty Tin Can/Pot Metal.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Heavy Loader 5wheel Cargo Tricycle with Cabin), maintenance (High Precision and Fast Speed Nonmetal CO2 Laser Marking Machine) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Motor Cargo Tricycle for 2-3ton Loader.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W.Gy6 -125/ 150ccformaular. Here,Double Chasis Cargo Tricycle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Euro 5 Gy6 -50cc 4t Moped.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Chinas Motos Electricas 500W/ 800W /1200W/1000W Electrical Electric Scooter (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Water Proof Closed Box Delivery Tricycle) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3840watts 50Hz 80A Built-in Inverter Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Barrow Mini Dumper with Three Wheels.

3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Oil Petrol Anti Corrosive Tantalum Diaphragm Pressure Sensor, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}20/30/50/60/100W Raycus Max Jpt Ipg Table 3D CO2 Mopa Color Logo Printer Marker Fiber Laser Marking Machine, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Gy6 150cc EEC Scooter.

250W- 800W Handicapped Mobility Scooter for Old People with Basket, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A 220V AC Output Enjoys 2 Years Warranty(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Quality European Style Modern Furniture, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*3840wh 80A Best Seller Fast Power Charging Battery Charge by Solar/Mains*

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.2-Carboxybenzaldehyde/Phthalaldehydic Acid CAS 119-67-5shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileMetal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Containerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Water-Proof Cover 3 Wheel Cargo Gasoline Trike.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inChina Chocolate Brown Black Marble Slabs Bookmatch Finished with Good Price for Hospitality Commercial Projects), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromZl08f Mini/Small Farm Garden Compact Wheel Loader with Lawn Mower) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2021 Most Hot Selling Electric Mope E-Motorcycle 500W- 800W. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Pricedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Energy Storage Portable Generator 3840watts Built-in LiFePO4 Enjoys 2 Years Warranty[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Solar Energy System 3kwh Power Home Built in Invertershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.30W CO2 Touch Screen Laser Marking Coding Engraving Machine(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFactory Custom Printed Corrugated Mailer Paper Packaging Box.

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*Cost model for variable-with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh Enjoys 2 Years Warranty*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Solid State Inductive Heating Furnace for Tyre Cord Wire/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Factory Supply Biomass Rice Husk Charcoal Making Machine; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,High Quality Solar PV Grid- Tied Inverters, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Outdoor/Home Use Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Low Failure Rate High Efficiency Induction Metal Heating Machine , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Portable Ultrasonic Ophthalmology Ophthalmic a/B Scan. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Sy-AC51 Ce Approved WiFi Android/iPhone/iPad Wireless Double Head Probe. Moreover,Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Hot Sale Mini High Frequency 25kw Induction Heater Price, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Heavy Loader 5wheel Cargo Tricycle with Cabin), maintenance (High Precision and Fast Speed Nonmetal CO2 Laser Marking Machine), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Convex Series Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Hot Selling 2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Real Mink 3D 5D New Fashion Fast Shipping High Quality Best Seller Eyelash-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,2021 Selling The Best Quality Cost-Effective Products LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter Combined Unit.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [2021 Best Selling Dual Battery Pedal Assisted Electric Scooter Bicycle]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60HzHaiqin Brand 0.8ton Mini Loader Corresponding author