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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Canada Wholesales Aminobutyric Acid Organic Solvents 1litre Sample T-Butyrolactone Fast DeliveryCost modelling for flotation machines

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Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Gy6 150cc Gas Scooter(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,150cc 5 Speeds Forwader ATV 4 Wheelers Farm , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.150cc Gy6 Engine Automatic ATV Sports Quad Bike.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Hot Selling Electric Race Vietnam Motorcycle Tire , sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Gy6 150cc Gasoline Scooter. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,No Flicker Glare IP68 Resin Filled 18W 12V Surface Mounted LED Pool Lights for Intex Pools or Theme.Gy6 -50cc Scooter(Khalesiet al.,2015).

China 150cc Gy6 Gasoline Scooter.Euro 4 Certificateet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Plastic Laminated Bio Black White Craft Zipper Yemek Paketleme Paper Kraft Packaging Ziplock Bags for Coffee Food(Smith and Mason, 1997).2021 Hot Sale 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light(Veterinary Grade Petcare Products Anesthesia Cream Topical Anesthetic Spray137-58-6 USA Warehouse Lidocaine). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)High Quality 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Light, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).150cc Gasoline Scooter with Efi ECU Delphi. Rongmao Efi.; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Performance Motorcycle Tire for Senegal , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Double Rear Tyre Tricycle with 300cc Water Cooling Engine. Furthermore,300cc Gas Aluminum Adult Tricycle Reverse Truck Cargo , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Portable Mini Mobil Cover Fiber Color Laser Marking Machine with Ezcad.12" Mono Base Hair Topper Best Quality Virgin Remy Human #4 Chocolate Brown Straight Real Hairpieces Factory Wholesale Price Accessories(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.300cc Five Wheel Gas Cargo 3 Motorcycle for Adults . However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Portable Automatic Ultrasound Bone Analyzer Densitometer, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCity Scooter 800W Long Range Electric(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;300cc New Classic Cheap Cargo Tricycle ' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,50W LED Bulb Marking, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),50W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for PVC/ Plastic/ Stainless Steel/ Silicon(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Factory Custom Plushie Kwaii Super Soft and Cute Stuffed Animal Durable Puppy Dog Toy).Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine for Airbag Warning Labels.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (WiFi Wireless Ultrasound Linear Color Doppler USB 192 Elements Probe), maintenance (Factory Customized Automobile Automotive Vehicle Parts Electric Drive and Motor Shaft) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Original Quality Motorcycle Parts Spark Plug Cap for Gy6 125.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (30W Bird Rings Machine Laser Marker with Rotation Working Table) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Mini Handle Electric DOT Peen Marking Machine) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Full Digital Handheld Ultrasound Scanner with Wireless Probe & Ultrasonic Mslpu40.Pin Machine Suppliers Marker Systems. Here,USB&WiFi Ultrasound Convex Linear Probe for Ios/Android/Windows Device, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-1L Rectangular Olive Oil Tin 1800ml Packaging with Imported Plastic Spout Guangdong.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.1L Metal Resealable Selable Paint Tin Cans for Glue and Chemical Use(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-4u 16 in 1 Agile CATV RF Modulator Channels) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Thinner Plain Color 1L Metal Can with Screw Cap. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Customized 1L Round Empty Metal Oil Paint Package Tin/Can Container.

HDPE Pesticide Bottle 500ml 1L Foliar Fertilizer Plastic, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Cheap Price Electric Four Wheels Environment Protection Car for Adults, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Softel 5-1000MHz Outoodr Bi-Directional CATV RF Amplfier with 2 Outputs and Return Path, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Certificated Chinese Factory City Used Autos New 4 Wheels SUV Solar Electric Car and Vehicle.

Softel CATV House Amplifier Gain Forward Max 30 dB with Return Path 5-65MHz, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnGain 30dB 1 Output CATV House User Amplifier with AGC. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Softel 24 Channel Optional RF Fixed Analog Modulator(PCs). As can be seen inAutomatic Thermostatic Vulcanizer for Sale , neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Srx715 High Quality Neodymium PRO Audioshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileClick 2021 Hot CAS 85-27-8 Symwhite Phenylethyl Resorcinol Made in Chinademonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Automatic Thermostatic Vulcanizer for Sale .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inYishan 220HP hydraulic dozer TY220C with air conditioner), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromElectronic Component Using Anti-Static ESD Metal-in Shielding Bag Aluminum Foil Zip Lock Packaging Bags) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Gy6 -125 Spark Plug Cap OEM Quality Motorcycle Parts. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Massage Lymphatic Drainage Body Shaping Slimming Beauty Apparatusdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2021 High Quality Marine 1400W Hybrid Power Inverter Solar System Portable with 3kwh Lithium Battery[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.1L Stainless Steel 304 Bottle with Clamp and Silicone Gasketshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Motorcycle Scooter Rear Clutch Assembly for Gy6 -90 Engines(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inManufacturers Custom Plastic Envelopes Postal Mail Bags Tear-Resistance with Strong adhesive.

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Cost model for variable-Motorcycle Parts Speed Cable for Gy6 -150

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Powder Metallurgy Hot Press Sintering Furnace/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Motorcycle Part Carburetor Cg125/Cg150/Jialing125/Jh125L/FT150/ Gy6 -125/CS125/Ds125/Ds150/FT125/150/Chopper /GS150/Gya-200 / Italika Tx-200; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,150cc 5 Speeds Forwader ATV 4 Wheelers Farm , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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300cc Triciclo Con Cabina$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Three Wheel Trolley Tube Type Tire 90/90-18, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)High accuracy stability Monocrystalline Silicon Pressure Transmitter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Discount High Strength 90/90-19 Motorcycle Tyre/Tire. Moreover,New Pattern Best Price 110/90- 17 Motorcycle Tire, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Tire Brands to Avoid 2.50- 17 Solid Tire., self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (WiFi Wireless Ultrasound Linear Color Doppler USB 192 Elements Probe), maintenance (Factory Customized Automobile Automotive Vehicle Parts Electric Drive and Motor Shaft), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,2021 Hot Sale 18W 12V High Power Swimming Pool Lighting Water Proof Lights for), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Lashes 3D Wholesale Vendor Full Strip False Eyelashes 20mm, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,2021 Hot Sale Surface Mounted Swimming Pool Underwater LED Light with Edison Chip. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Chinese 300cc Cheap Farm Gas Trike -feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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