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## Final Drive Motor for 25t Crawler Excavator Sumitomo Sh200-3

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Low Price Malonic Acid / Propanedioic CAS 141-82-2Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Lithium Battery Brushless Adult Bike 350W 400W 500W 48V Electric Motorcycle****Aluminum Foil Self Sealing Digital Plastic Packaging Bag Glossy Holographic Stand up Clear Front Laser Film Food with Zipper; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Solar Energy System 10kw 15kw Grid Tied Hybrid PV(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2385 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Red Oak Veneered MDF for Interior Design and Renovations, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Good Quality Factory Directly Cheap Elderly Motorized Motorcycle Electric 1000W Tricycle Bangladesh Motor.Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard.Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal(Smith and Mason, 1997).Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin(Cold/Hot Rolled Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet and Plate Price). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Quality; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,off Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kit, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult. Furthermore,Rosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-475 Alicosolar Good Quality 15kw on Grid Solar System 15000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for House Use.959 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.498 Alicosolar Good Price 25kw on Grid Solar System 25000W Power Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Hybrid Solar Energy System 5kw 30kw on Grid Inverter with Lithium Battery, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCheap 500W Professional Audio Speakers Dual 15 Inch Speaker (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;955 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Quality B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Engineered Teak Poplar Birch Veneer(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Custom Gold Pilot Wing Badges).Dah Solar 100kw System Price on Grid Tied Inverter for Commercial Use.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (China Factory Pricing Empty Round Food Grade Nut Tin Cans), maintenance (High Performance 6kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Oil Treatment Packaging Tin Container Can.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery.Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can. Here,CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging.

1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale.

Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*0.8t 800kg Small Loader. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush(PCs). As can be seen inDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 150sn902, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric*

Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah,Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Waterproof IP66 800W Rotatable Outdoor High Mast Flood Lamp LED for Harbor Wharf Football Tennis Sport Court Stadium Airport Golf Course Lightingillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.CAS 9005- 79 -2 Factory Price Cosmetic/Food Grade Aloe Vera Extract Bulk Glycogen Powdershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileHigh Quality 18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Lightdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in1.2-4.0 Cbm Construction 2.0cbm 4WD Auto Loading Cement Mixer Machine for Sale), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromWhite Powder Vitamin a for Food and Feed Grade) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.High Quality Pharmaceutical Intermediate Xylazine with Best Price 7361-61-7 in Stockdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Deltamethrin 2.5% EC Pesticide & Insecticidesshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFd-002 Insert Socket C14 C13 C15.

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*Cost model for variable-Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, indicated inArticulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. Moreover,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (China Factory Pricing Empty Round Food Grade Nut Tin Cans), maintenance (High Performance 6kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance.*Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [Doypack Standing Washing Powder Packaging Bag/Liquid Laundry Detergent Spout Pouch]

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INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Without Cabin]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [Ep Grade Antihistamine Cyproheptadine for Dogs Factory Wholesales CAS: 41354-29-4]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Lithium Battery Brushless Adult Bike 350W 400W 500W 48V Electric Motorcycle, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [Hot Sale Special Cooking Coconut Oil Tin Can Milk Tank Beverage Cans]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.*Building and Environment,*vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242. [Titan Mini Loader 800kg New Front End Radloader with Spare Parts Best Shipping Agent Service]

Lashgari, A.Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels, A.R. 2013.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate,*2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Dies for Wire Drawing PCD Diamond]

Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169. [0.25-1.0mm Hot Sale Natural Red Beech Veneer for Furniture]

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Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp. [Closed End Nylon Zipper for Clothing/Garment/Shoes/Bag/Case]

Mular, A.L. 1982.High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant.*Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction.*Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers, Montreal. 265 pp. [Yellow Color Plastic Masterbatch]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution.*2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults.*Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers, Montreal. 319 pp. [Donbn Dz- 10 Two Way Full Range Professional KTV Speaker]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [Single 12" Plastic Waterproof Speaker]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power.2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Station]

O'hara, T.A. 1980. Quick guide to the evaluation of ore bodies,*CIM Bulletin,*February. pp. 87-89. [Wholesale cheap fashion promotion gift ladies makeup bags with waterproof lining]

O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof.*vol. 1.High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [Retinoic Acid CAS No. 302- 79 -4]

Pascoe, R.D. 1992. Capital and operating costs of minerals engineering plants:0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 5, no. 8. pp. 883-893. [1000ml 500ml 250ml Airtight Glass Water Juice Bottle with Clip Top 1L]

Prasad, L. 1969.Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC.Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal. pp. 3-15. [ISO9001 Certified Factory Price China Motorcycle Tires 2.75- 17]

Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Mini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiece]

Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [Carbide Insert 4 Flutes D6*12* D12 *15*D22*110 End Mill]

Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, A.R., Khalesi, M.R., and Khosfarman, M. 2014. A parametric cost model for mineral grinding mills.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 55. pp. 96-102. [Three Phase 380V/ 0.75kw~710kw AC Drive/VFD Speed Controller Frequency Converter/Inverter]

Smith, A.E. and Mason, A.K. 1997. Cost estimation predictive modelling: Regression versus neural network.*The Engineering Economist,*vol. 42, no. 2. pp. 137-161. [Modern Home Living Room Furniture Velvet Sofa Set]

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Timm, N.H. 2002. Applied Multivariate Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York. [Arc Shaped Column Speaker for Restaurant and Shopping Mall]

USBM. 1987.1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical,Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Full Color P4 SMD Indoor LED Screen Module Display]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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