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## Hot Sell Customized Stoneware Mug with Glazed Handle

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Fdb Audio Double 6 Inch Line Array Speaker Professional Outdoor PA SystemCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.17 Inch 18 Aftermarket New Design Aluminum Car Alloy Rim****Sport Court Stadium Spotlight Outdoor Projector Light 600W 800W 1000W LED Floodlight; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.China Wolf Wl80 Articulated Mini Loader(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Digital ATSC Receiver Internet TV Set Top Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Vimode Buy 2021 Newest 48V Electric Motorcycles Made in China 800W.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

High Quality Aluminum Alloy Wheels Rims, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Truck Rim Steel Polished 17.5 Inch Wheel. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Sunpal 150kw Solar Grid Tied System Low Price.5GHz 19dBi Enclosure WLAN Antenna(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

16 17 18 Inch Vossen CV5 Alloy Wheel.VFD Air Compressor Asynchronous Variable Frequency Drive*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2021 Hot Sale 18W 12V High Power Swimming Pool Lighting Water Proof Lights for(Smith and Mason, 1997).Tubeless Steel Wheel (7.5kw MPPT with High Efficiency Solar Water Pump Controller). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Home Application on Grid Tied Solar Power System 3kw, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Home Use Cheap Solar Panel System 10kw Grid Tied Kit; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Nichless Flat Wall Mounted Resin Filled LED Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.5GHz Antenna High Gain 32dBi. Furthermore,5GHz Dual Polarization Enclosure WLAN Antenna, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-32dBi 5GHz WLAN Antenna.Brown Black Opaque Chemical Industrial Container 100ml Flip Top Cap Bottle(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.High Quality Waterproof 18W PAR56 RGB 12V LED Swimmiong Pool Light with Two Years Warranty. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Nicheless Flat Resin Filled Thin 12W Wall Mounted IP68 RGB Underwater LED Swimming Pool Lights, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in15'' Coaxial Speaker (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;2.5A 0.4kw IP20 Jarol Variable Frequency Drive' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,New Electric Beatiful on Road 800W Scooter E-Motorcycle

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,5GHz 15dBi Dual Polarization Enclosure WiFi Antenna, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Modern City Leisure Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Lithium Battery (CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (HD Indoor Outdoor P2.6 P2.97 P3.91 P4.81 Display Rental LED Screens).White Truck Wheel 17.5X6.00 Steel Rims.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (7.5kw MPPT with High Efficiency Solar Water Pump Controller), maintenance (Carb P2 AA/Bb Grade Birch/Okoume/Bintangor/Poplar Plywood) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,AC Variable Frequency Drive Single Phase.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (17.5X6.75 Heavy Duty Truck Trailer Steel Wheel Rim) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Triple Phase Variable Frequency Inverter AC Drive) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.White Steel Wheel for Truck 17.5X6.00.Carb Grade 18mm Commercial Plywood. Here,Highlighted LED Electric Motorcycle with 60V 800W Power System, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-AC 3 Phase 380V Compact Vectorial Inverter Frequency 220V.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.High Speed Full Size Adult 800W Z1000 Electric Motorcycle(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-AC Drives Frequency Inverter for Dyeing Machine) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,1220*2440*18mm Birch Plywood with Carb P2 Standard Quality. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Solar Pump Frequency Inverter MPPT Fuction 15kw Made in China.

China Wholesales Wheel Loader HR912 with Pallet Forks, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (AC Frequency Speed Controller 7.5kw VFD Drives, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Carb P2 Bleached White Poplar Plywood for Furniture, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Professional Mini Wheel Loader for Sale with Low Price.

New Model Chinese Small Loader Front End Wheel for Sale, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Mimo Antenna 13dBi CPE. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).1220X2440X9mm Carb P2 Glue Bleached Poplar Plywood for Furniture(PCs). As can be seen in5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with 2*16dBi Gain for Best Design, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*5GHz 25dBi Dual Pol Enclosure Antenna*

Bleached Poplar/Birch Carb Plywood,Weifang Cp Cloud Pillar Brand Ce Approved Zl08 Multi-Function Mini Wheel Loader with Cheap Price(CSFM) is presented here as an example.CAS: 13553- 79 -2; Rifamycin Sillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.China 150cc Gy6 Gasoline Scootershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileDC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 2.2kwdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Newest Kids Pedal Electric Drift Crazy Kart Go.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inRhino White Marble Slab for Foor Tile), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromSmall Wheel Loader Zl08 CE) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.IN-A7 handheld color doppler linear probe hip bone ultrasound scanner. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bikedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,New Generation Engine Er08 Wheel Loader with CE/Bucket for Sale[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Heavy Duty Truck Tire 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.7.5MHz/10.0MHz Msk/Vascular Use Wireless Ultrasound Equipment(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFlamed Light Grey Lunar Pearl Granite Swimming Pool Paver.

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*Cost model for variable-Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Whole Sale Hammerhead 150cc Go Kart with Parts/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Earthmoving Equipments Mini Wheelloader Wl80 Loader Radlader; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Digital ATSC Receiver Internet TV Set Top Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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WiFi Probe Type 2 in 1 Double Head Wireless Mini Color Doppler Ultrasound$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Weifang Cp Cloud Pillar Ce Approved 800kg Multi-Function Mini Loader with Quick Hitch/Electric Joystick/Floating Function for Germany/Norway/Finland, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Aj-Bmd500 New Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.18watt Resin Filled Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp with Two Years Warranty. Moreover,5kw Philippines Photovoltaic Offgrid Grid Tied Inverter Solar Power System Home, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Solar Power System 8kw Grid Tied Solution, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (7.5kw MPPT with High Efficiency Solar Water Pump Controller), maintenance (Carb P2 AA/Bb Grade Birch/Okoume/Bintangor/Poplar Plywood), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,CE China manufacturers mini wheel loader for sale at cheap price), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Wolf Agricultural Machinery Construction Small Front End Wheel Loader with Euro5 and Tier4 Engine, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},China Portable Medical Ophthalmic a/B Ultrasound Scanner Pachymeter with B Probe for Eyes. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.6000W 200V-240V AC Single Phase on Gird/ Grid- Tied Solar Power Energy System-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

AC Frequency Converter2HP 1phaseTrimethyl CisCorresponding author