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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Cheap 500W Professional Audio Speakers Dual 15 Inch Speaker Cost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Good Quality Factory Directly Cheap Elderly Motorized Motorcycle Electric 1000W Tricycle Bangladesh Motor500W Air-Cooled Wide Band UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kit(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult.Rosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Marketet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Indissolvable Ammonium Polyphosphate CAS No. 68333- 79 -9(Smith and Mason, 1997).475 Alicosolar Good Quality 15kw on Grid Solar System 15000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for House Use(Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 150sn902). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)959 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).498 Alicosolar Good Price 25kw on Grid Solar System 25000W Power Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Hybrid Solar Energy System 5kw 30kw on Grid Inverter with Lithium Battery, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.955 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate. Furthermore,0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce.High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inNeodymium Double 10 Inch DSP Active Professional Powered Line Array Speaker(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Oil Treatment Packaging Tin Container Can

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (2021 Stylish Weekender Bag Men Messenger Shoulder Pack with Shoe Compartment).Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can), maintenance (CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout.Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging. Here,1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)0.8t 800kg Small Loader.

Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah.

Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnSuper Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home(PCs). As can be seen inCAS 9005- 79 -2 Factory Price Cosmetic/Food Grade Aloe Vera Extract Bulk Glycogen Powder, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork,Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket(CSFM) is presented here as an example.AC Manufacturer 3 pH Compressor Solar Pump Inverter VFD Voltage Converterillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.X96 Max Amlogic S905X2 Android8.1 2GB RAM 16GB ROM or 4GB 32GB 64GB 4K Android TV Boxshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileWhite Powder Vitamin a for Food and Feed Gradedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHeavy Duty 10t to 50t Electric Chain Hoist with Hook), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromDeltamethrin 2.5% EC Pesticide & Insecticides) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Customized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Iondemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovelshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in2014 Brand New a-Line White Lace Sweetheart Organza Wedding Dresses Bridal Gowns.

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Cost model for variable-10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, indicated inEp Grade Antihistamine Cyproheptadine for Dogs Factory Wholesales CAS: 41354-29-4, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw. Moreover,Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can), maintenance (CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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