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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Zl08f Wheel Loaders with Ce Farm 0.8 Ton Tractor Mini/Small CompactCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.5L Vegetable Cooking Oil Custom Tinplate Square Can****High Efficiency 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Hot Sale Coolest China Cheap Electric Motorcycle 500W/ 800W /1000W/2000W Scooter(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Wholesale Plastic Square 1 Liter Fertilizer Bottle, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Accredited Ce E Bike Batteries 36V 48V Ebike Battery 10ah-40ah Lithium.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

50cc Motorcycle, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Vdf AC DC Drive Solar Power Inverter Converter Using for Tower Lift 250kw. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Zhenhua Classic Motorcycle Dax 125cc Euro4.Super Cooling Smart Electric Scooter 500W 800W Motorcycle(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Wholesale 1L Round Empty Fully Synthetic Brake Oil Tin Can with Metal or Aluminum Caps.Scooter / Motorcycle Electric Motor Power 800W 1kw 2kw 3kw*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Nylon OTR Bias Tyre/Tire Manufacture E3/L3 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25(Smith and Mason, 1997).5GHz Dual Pol Sector Antenna with Enclosure(Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarized Enclosure Antenna , Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).2.4/ 5GHz 10dBi Rubber WiFi Antenna; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Customized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Ion, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.5GHz 18dBi Sector WiFi Antenna. Furthermore,125cc Retro Scooter Motorcycle, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Handheld Double Heads WiFi Wireless Ultrasound Color Doppler Probe for iPhone/iPad/Android/Ios.Hot Selling 800W Brushless Motor Electric Scooter Motorcycle(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Lady's E-Scooter 800W Hot Sale Made in China. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (High Quality Electric Motorbike with 800W Motor, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inZl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractor(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;800W 72V China Electric Tricycle for Handicapped' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,No Flicker Glare 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,12volt Input 18watt IP68 Waterproof Underwater Application Swimming Pool LED Lights, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna (CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (PVC Artificial Leather).5GHz 27dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (TUV Certificate Gried Tied on Grid 20kw Solar PV System), maintenance (High Quality 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with Edison Chip) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,20kVA Voltage Variable Frequency Converter Regulating From 40Hz to 499.9Hz 0-520V.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (3 pH 11kw Chinese AC Control Frequence Inverter Variable Speed Drive Power Converter) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Water Proof Vet Ultrasound Scanner) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Three Phase Vector Frequence Converter with High Performance.Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 Series. Here,16"X6.0" 16'x7.0' 16X8.0 16X10 Trailer Steel Rim Wheel, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-AC Drive Frequnce Converter Frequence Inverter Manufacturer Supplier.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.14"X5.0"J 14'x5.5'j 14X6.0j 14X7.0j Inch Steel Wheel for Sport Trailer(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Eougem Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Mini Front End Loader. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Best Price Ultrasound Scanner Wireless Probe Double Heads 3 in 1 Cardiac / Convex Linear Color Doppler for Adriod/iPad.

Ultrasonic a B Scan Ophthalmic Eye Ultrasound Scanner with Low Price, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Ce Approved Medical Portable Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Machine , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Vitreous Hemorrhage , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,500kw on Grid Tied Hybrid Solar Power Plant Station System.

High Quality Classic China Motor Cargo Three Wheel Motorcycle , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Motorcycle with Dryweight 120-220kg. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Ce Approved 10inch Portable Laptop Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Scanner (PCs). As can be seen inDual 18 Subwoofer Speaker with 12 Inch Audio Professional Kas Line Array, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Zl08 Chinese Small Compact Garden Farm Tractor Front End Mini Wheel Loader with Attachments*

B5 200cc 250cc 300cc Cargo Tricycle with Cabin Motorcycle Three Wheel Loncin Zongshen Lifan Engine,Growatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar Inverter(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Factory Price Portable Mini Tws Bluetooth Earphone Headphone for Huaweiillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Innopack 1L Square Engine Oil Tin Can with Screw Cap Manufacturershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileSolar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Power for Homedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Hot Selling Tricycle 250cc/ 300cc Three Wheel Motorcycle.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inWedding Dress), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromGood Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Sp-1000ap Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.HK1 Smart TV Box Amlogic S905W Android 7.1 Quad Core 2GB 16GBdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Adult 150cc 200cc 300cc EPA Approved Three Wheel Mptorcycle Scooter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.6 Cyl Head and Rotor shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.300cc Road Legal Ault Street Gas Three Wheel Scooter(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCNC Veneer Cutting Machine/ Cutter / Cliper.

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*Cost model for variable-China Supplier Ophthalmic Equipment Ultrasound Ab Scan*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Vimode Electric Scooter Adult Motorcycle for Adults 800W/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.150cc/200cc/250cc / 300cc Three Wheel Cargo Motorcycle /Tricycle; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Wholesale Plastic Square 1 Liter Fertilizer Bottle, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Heavy Duty Tricycle 250cc. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Electric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Battery, indicated in300cc Five Wheel Gas Cargo 3 Motorcycle for Adults , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

City Scooter 800W Long Range Electric$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.800W Electric Scooter Motorcycle Bicycle with Folding Rack, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Wholesale Adult Tricycle Price Adults Tuk Motorcycle in India. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Sporty 500W/ 800W /1000W. Moreover,5GHz 10dBi Outdoor WiFi Omni Antenna , and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Ho-500 Ce Approved High Quality Eye Diagnosis System Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (TUV Certificate Gried Tied on Grid 20kw Solar PV System), maintenance (High Quality 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with Edison Chip), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Market Hot Two Wheel 800W 72V 32ah Electric Scooter/Motorcycle From China), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Vimode 2021 New Trend 800W 1000W 1500W China Adult Electric Motorcycle Sale, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Police Motorcycle 250cc. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.125cc Scooter EEC Popular Motor Alex-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Ce Approved Medical Portable Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Machine , A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Ho-500 High Quality Ophthalmic Ultrasound Eye Diagnosis System.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Frame Quadrant Glass Curved Shower Cubicle for Sale Price]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

3293 Fast Rose Lake B Pigment Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kwCorresponding author