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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Plastic Sheet Machine PC Polycarbonate SolidCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Universal Vector Inverter****Wireless Module Qualcomm Atheros Qca9880 Wle900vx 802.11AC Wave 1 Minipcie WiFi Network Card; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Frequency Inverter 220V 50/60Hz 60HP Three Phases Acdrive(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,High-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Wl80 Mini Loader From Wolf.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Wolf Mini Wheel Loader Wl950 Farm, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging.Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover.15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Water/Gas-Supply PP PE HDPE Plastic Pipe/Tube Extrusion Making Machine(Smith and Mason, 1997).0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer(Chinese Famous Brand Canmax Wheel Loader Cm908 Using Hydraulic Pump Machinery Can Be Used in Farms). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box. Furthermore,New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Food Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil.800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Rectangular Glue Tin Can Empty Clear Paint. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inUniversal LPG Gas Completed ECU Conversion Kit(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Retro Scooters

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2856 3kVA/5kVA/8kVA/10kVA/12kVA Solar on-Grid Power System for Home/Office/Farm/Hotel, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (1300mm CNC Spindleless Peeling Machine).Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle), maintenance (800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm.Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can. Here,Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10.

800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike.

800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike(PCs). As can be seen inPolice Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320cc, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid*

800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale,Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabinillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Chinese Factory Tin Can with Brush for Glue and Sealants Adgesivesshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while60V 800 Watt 150kg Load Electric E Bike Motorcycle Moped 45 Km H for 2 Person Adults UKdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCheapest price Manufacturer of disposable baby diaper manufacturer from China), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHot Sale 0.6m 5GHz Parabolic Antenna with Gian 28dBi) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Customized Hot Stamping Printed Bags with Your Own Logo or Design Food Packaging Airtight Pouches Aluminum Foil Zip Lock Child Resistance up Squeezedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.L18 /86130 100%Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1000W RMS Subwoofershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.866 5kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCustomized Kraft Padded Envelope Shipping Bag.

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*Cost model for variable-Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.800W Electric Scooter ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,High-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Good-Sealing Square Tin Can Engine Oil with Metal Lid. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood, indicated inCustomized Label Plastic White Black Kraft Paper Pouch One Way Valve Roasted Bean Flat Bottom Coffee Bag Food Packaging Rice Pet Container, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Natural Wood Bintangor Face Veneer for Door and Furniture, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Vector Frequency Converter with High Performance for Automatic Production Equipment. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board. Moreover,Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Electric Motorcycle , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle), maintenance (800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Electric Motorcycle . Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Electric Motorcycle -feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Nitrogen Fertilizer Caprolactam Grade Ammonium SulphateThermal RF & Fractional Wrinkle RemovalCorresponding author