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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Wholesales Plastic Food Packaging Weed Mylar Bag Aluminum Foil Resemble Ziplock Pouch RiceCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric****12V AC Warm White PC Mini Flat Resin Filled LED Pool Light; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Rectangular Glue Tin Can Empty Clear Paint(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Citycoco Electric Motorcycle E6 Cheap OEM E Bike. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle.Euro5(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Retro Scooters.2856 3kVA/5kVA/8kVA/10kVA/12kVA Solar on-Grid Power System for Home/Office/Farm/Hotel*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Durable VDSL Modem Router with 2.4G/5.0g Dual WiFi Vdb1421-W2 1ge Wan+4ge+2FXS(Smith and Mason, 1997).HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0(Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz. Furthermore,Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container.Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inWholesales Hairdressing College 100% Real Natural Hair Practice Mannequin Training Head for Hairdresser(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Hot Sale! 300j Digital Display Impact Testing Machine).800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles), maintenance (10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle.Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz. Here,Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-866 5kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid.

800W Electric Scooter , the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Good-Sealing Square Tin Can Engine Oil with Metal Lid, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut.

Natural Wood Bintangor Face Veneer for Door and Furniture, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Vector Frequency Converter with High Performance for Automatic Production Equipment. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board(PCs). As can be seen inHot Sell 800W Delivery City Electric Scooter for Take-out Business, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz*

Electric Motorcycle ,High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Insecticide Deltamethrin 2.5% Ecillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Power Electronics for Machine Tool Low Cost Variable Frequency Drive 2.2kwshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileFactory Supply Benzaldehyde CAS 100-52-7 99% with Best Price in Stockdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inFan/Auto Car High Quality Deep Groove Ball Bearing Portuguese Barato Bola Cilindrica / Rolo /Angulo /Insercao Axial Rolamento Rigido De Esferas), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromMx Series Analog Audio Mixer with EQ and DSP Mx-18fx for Professional Use) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

*Electric Motorcycle *

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Electric Motorcycle . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tubedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Electric Motorcycle[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Football Basketball Soccer Stadium Sport Court High Mast Lighting Aluminum Floodlight 100W 200W 300W 500W 800W Outdoor LED Flood Lightshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Electric Motorcycle (a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHigh Quality Outdoor Decoration Laser Garden Christmas Projector Lights.

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*Cost model for variable-750ml Metal Tin Can Container for Chili Oil Canning*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Hot Sale Food Packaging Tin Can for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Metal Engine Oil Can Recycling Lubricant Tin Packaging Container; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

2L Galvanized Tin Cans for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Electric Motorcycles , indicated inHot Sale on-Grid 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power Home System, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Made in China Solar System 10kw 20kw 30kw 40kw 50kw Energy for Industry$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)800W Aluminium Alloy Wheel Hubs Sport Electric Motorcycle. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Zl08 Chargeuse Wheel Loader. Moreover,Professional Manufacturer Everun Er08 CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (500W EEC Electric scooter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles), maintenance (10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Electric Motorcycle ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Solar Electric Motorcycle, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Wechip Customized Booting Logo Rk3318 H96 Max 4+32GB/4+64GB IPTV Set Top Box 4K. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.OEM 1500W EEC Electric Scooter -feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 132s1320Cyclopropyl Acetylene/ Lide Pharma- Factory Supply / Best Price CAS 6746-94-7Corresponding author