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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Guangzhou Manufacturer Empty Anti Bacterial Diesel Additive Can for Fuel CleanerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 7.5kw****50Hz 60Hz 220V/380V Vector Control AC Variable Frequency Drive; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Zl08 Wheel Loader Wl80 Wolf Mini(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractor, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Popular hot selling 0.8ton mini wheel loader/ front end loader with bucket on sale.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

China New Design Everun Er408 Mini Small Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Pump, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,3 Phase AC Drive for Water Pump and Fan. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,910 Alicosolar 10kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate.E0 Glue1250*2500mm Wenge Engineer Veneer for Decoration(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Wood Woven and Strand Bamboo Veneer Sheets.Rotary Cut Bintagor Veneer for Panels and Furniture with Good Price*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Pharmaceutical Grade Anesthetic Powder Bupivacaine Brazil Warehouse CAS: 14252-80-3(Smith and Mason, 1997).High Quanlity 1 Phase 3 AC Drive VFD for Pump(Custom CNC Machining Stainless Steel Small Tablet Press Machine Parts Pill Shape Mold Punches and Dies). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Factory-Okoume Veneer 0.25mm-0.60mm in a and B Grade, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Engineered Ebony Veneer Ecowood Reconstituted Macassar Quarter Cut; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,899 Alicosolar 9kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Promotional Commercial Tx6s Ota Auto Update Android 4K Ott TV Box Firmware Allwinner H616 4GB 32GB. Furthermore,3phase VFD, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter.Round Gloss Tin Can Metal for Edible Olive Oil Canning(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Universal Vector Inverter. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Frequency Inverter 220V 50/60Hz 60HP Three Phases Acdrive, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inJarol Solar Inverter 5.5kw 3 Phase(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;High-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V' names:

►Wl80 Mini Loader From Wolf: based on 36-foot,Wolf Mini Wheel Loader Wl950 Farm,Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader,Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Veneer Peeling Machine for Wood Processing Rotary and Cutting Plywood Combined Lathe).0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid), maintenance (5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Food Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil.800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric. Here,Rectangular Glue Tin Can Empty Clear Paint, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Citycoco Electric Motorcycle E6 Cheap OEM E Bike. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle.

Euro5, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Retro Scooters, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}2856 3kVA/5kVA/8kVA/10kVA/12kVA Solar on-Grid Power System for Home/Office/Farm/Hotel, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0.

Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter(PCs). As can be seen inAsh Solid Wood decoration Board, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz*

Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer,Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container(CSFM) is presented here as an example.High Fidelity Professional Line Array Speaker illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pailshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whilePlastic Sheet Machine PC Polycarbonate Soliddemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHealth Raw Material Taurine CAS 107-35-7 Fast Delivery), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromUniversal LPG Gas Completed ECU Conversion Kit) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

*Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Police Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320ccdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Polyethylene Green Color Masterbatchshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWhite List CE Certified En14683 Disposable 3ply Hosptial Protective Face Type Iir Surgical Medical Mask.

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*Cost model for variable-Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractor, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container, indicated in60V 800 Watt 150kg Load Electric E Bike Motorcycle Moped 45 Km H for 2 Person Adults UK, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can. Moreover,500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid), maintenance (5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Local Anesthetic Cinchocaine CAS85- 79 -0 for Pain KillerChlorhexidine Diacetate CAS No 206986- 79 -0Corresponding author