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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Retinol Palmitate/Vitamin a Palmitate Oil as Food IngredientCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Hot Sale Model V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array SpeakerBody Circumference Reduction RF Vacuum Fast Slimming System Beauty Apparatus; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Dual 10 Inch Line Aray Powered Active Sound System(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,60W 10 " Portable HP5 Series Trolley Speaker with 2 UHF Mics, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Manufacturer Supply 1.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Dual 10inch PA Audio Line Array Speaker Box System, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Dual 10 " 600W Line Array PA Professional Speaker . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,10 " Dia Cast Aluminum Professional Subwoofer Basket.Food Packaging Vacuum Pouch(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Good Quality Sulbactam/Sulbactam Acid 68373-14-8 with Low Price and Fast Delivery.L-Arginine 99%et al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 99% 4'-Hydroxyacetophenone CAS 99-93-4 100% Pass Customs(Smith and Mason, 1997).China Factory Price CAS 702- 79 -4 1(Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)CPP High Temperature Vacuum Retort Pouch, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Factory Direct Semi-Synthetic Glycopeptide Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Raw Material Dalbavancin ; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Temperature 3 Side Seal Retort Pouch for Corn, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.R-3-Amino-1-N-Boc-Piperidine. Furthermore,ISO Certified 100% Natural L-Arginine Powder, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Mylar Barrier Exit Waterproof Cr Bag.Stand-up Ziplock Dried Food Packaging Vacuum Plastic Container(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.High Quality Laminated Food Grade Roll Film. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (D&B Style Dual 10 Inch Compact Line Array , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inTitan Brand 0.8 Ton High Quality Mini Wheel Loader with and Performance.(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Safety Shape Bag /Food Packaging Contact Plastic Container for Resealable' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Dual 10 " Compact Speaker Line Array

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10 " Woofer with 3" Voice Coil, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Lf Drivers 10 Inches 50-4000 Response Martin Audio Speaker Pw1026-64(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Model Qtf12-15 Big Scale Fly Ash Concrete Hollow Paving Brick Manufacturing Conrete Making Machine.).Dual 10 Inch Line Array Speaker for Theater .

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Lf Driver 10 Inches 64mm Glass Fiber Coil Professional Speaker ), maintenance (Dual 10 Inch Line Array for Church ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,15 Inch/12 Inch/ 10 Inch/8 Inch Full Range Speaker Box .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (10'' Inch Ferrite Woofer) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Q1 Dual 10 " Line Array System.D&B Style Dual 10 " Compact Line Array . Here,New Tw Audio Vera36 Dual 10 " Line Array Speaker System, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Professional Line Array Vtx V20 Dual 10 Inch Three Way Speaker.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Dual 10 " Compact Professional Line Array (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Custom Kraft Paper Flexible Food Packaging Flat Bottom Bag-100gr) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Custom Water Proof Child Resistant Food Grade Plastic Aluminum Laminated Stand up Container Bag. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Hot Sale Vacuum Bag Nylon Material for Agricultural Products.

Buy 99% Retinoic Acid Powder Vitamin a Tretinoin Retinol for Cosmetic, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Bio-Degradable Brown Kraft Food Packaging Bag, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Child Resistant Waterproof Plastic Bag with Zipper, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Kraft Paper LDPE Supermarket Vegetable Cosmetic Fruit Packaging Bag.

Fried Chicken Sweet Chili Sauce Food Packaging, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnGravure Printed Anti Static Bags ESD Shielding Anti-Static Bag APET/CPP APET/PE Moisture Proof Sntistatic Bag  /ESD Bag/Aluminium Foil Bag/Antistatic. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Kraft Paper Flat Bottom Bag with Ziplock(PCs). As can be seen inFull Digital Handheld Ultrasound Scanner with Wireless Probe & Ultrasonic Mslpu40, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Alumimun Foil Film Bag,99 Purity Peptides Oxytocin Injection Acetate 2mg(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Frequency Inverters Motor Speed Controller 3 Phase 220V Vector Control Inverterillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Yanmar Fuel Shutdown Solenoid 1503es-12s5suc12sshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while4WD Wheel Loader Manufacture Small Radlader 1.0 Ton Mini780demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,99% Pure CAS 56-95-1 Bulk Chlorhexidine Diacetate/Acetate Powder.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inZh-1050g Bottom Lock Corrugated Box Folder Gluer Machine), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from250cc Motor Cabin Tricycle Cargo with Canopy) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.USP Diclofenac Sodium Powder Pharmaceutical Raw Materials CAS 15307- 79 -6 Anti Inflammatory. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Dust Proof Steel Shackle Padlocks with Master Keydemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

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Cost model for variable-10'' Inch Ferrite Woofer

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].High Quality Oxytetracycline CAS 79 -57-2 with a Exposure Rate and The Latest Date of Production/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.10'' Ferrite Woofer; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,60W 10 " Portable HP5 Series Trolley Speaker with 2 UHF Mics, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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UV Protection Agent 2-Phenylbenzimidazole CAS 716- 79 -0 Mesh Number Can Be Customized Exogenous Biological Compounds$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Line Array 10 Inchneodymiun PRO Audio Woofer, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Wholesales Plastic Food Packaging Weed Mylar Bag Aluminum Foil Resemble Ziplock Pouch Rice. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Mylar Custom Printing Barrier Exit Bag. Moreover,10 Inch Coaxial Speaker Professional Driver 250wrms " Line Array Church Sound Equipment, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (10 Inch Coaxial Speaker Professional Driver 250wrms Line Array, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Lf Driver 10 Inches 64mm Glass Fiber Coil Professional Speaker ), maintenance (Dual 10 Inch Line Array for Church ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Professional Dual 10 " 3-Way Tri-AMP Line Array Speaker), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Manufacturer Supply 1, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Dual 10inch Powerful Line Array Speaker Ds210 Professional. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Feiyang/Temeisheng 10 Inch Professional DJ Wooden Speaker Audio Gd10-02-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [Professional Sound Speaker Single 8 Inch Portable Stage Monitor PS8r2]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Hot Sale Model V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Supply Rubber Accelerator Mbt 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole CAS No.: 149-30-4.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [IGBT Induction Heater Heating Equipment for Metal Surface ]

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Mcnab, B., Jancovic, A., David, D., and Payne, P. 2009. Processing of magnetite iron ores-comparing grinding options.Proceedings of the AusIMM Iron Ore Conference,Perth, WA, 27-29 July 2009.         [Skin Whitening Machine / Fractional RF]

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Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce]

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Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.Information Circular9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines.         [LDPE Plastic Pellet 30% Black Pigment Color Masterbatch]

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Wills, B.A. and Napier-Munn, T. 2011. Wills' Mineral Processing Technology: An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery. 7th edn. Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann, Amsterdam.         [Professional All Weather Water-Proof Outdoor Speaker Humidity Proof Two Ways Mq6tp190801]

Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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