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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for UseCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light****Wholesales Hairdressing College 100% Real Natural Hair Practice Mannequin Training Head for Hairdresser; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Citycoco Electric Motorcycle E6 Cheap OEM E Bike(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Euro5.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Retro Scooters, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,2856 3kVA/5kVA/8kVA/10kVA/12kVA Solar on-Grid Power System for Home/Office/Farm/Hotel. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0.Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle.800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter AC 220V(Smith and Mason, 1997).Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz(Android Advertising Player 46 Inch Ultra Thin Bezel LCD Video Wall LED Backlit E Paper Display). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can. Furthermore,Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin.China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inHot Sell 800W Delivery City Electric Scooter for Take-out Business(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Hobby CNC Router with Ncstudio Control System for Sale Qd-1218).Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale), maintenance (Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil.866 5kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home. Here,Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.800W Electric Scooter (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Good-Sealing Square Tin Can Engine Oil with Metal Lid) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut.

Natural Wood Bintangor Face Veneer for Door and Furniture, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Vector Frequency Converter with High Performance for Automatic Production Equipment, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz.

Electric Motorcycle , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale(PCs). As can be seen inInsecticide Deltamethrin 2.5% Ec, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Electric Motorcycle *

Electric Motorcycle ,Electric Motorcycle(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Factory Supply Benzaldehyde CAS 100-52-7 99% with Best Price in Stockillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Manufacturer Supply 1shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileKraft Paper Flat Bottom Bag with Ziplockdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Electric Motorcycle .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inKSOC-10 Best-Selling Medical Use 10L Portable Oxygen Concentrator with Alarm), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Hot Sale Food Packaging Tin Can for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roofdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Metal Engine Oil Can Recycling Lubricant Tin Packaging Container[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Plastic Smell Proof Custom Printed Ziplock Stand up Weed Mylar Bags with Window Hemp Packing Bag 3 Side Heat Sealed Laminated Foil Container for Coconut Sugarshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.2L Galvanized Tin Cans for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inMatt Neon Sign Drop Shipping Acrylic Kind Mind LED Light Letter Custom.

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*Cost model for variable-Electric Motorcycles *

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Made in China Solar System 10kw 20kw 30kw 40kw 50kw Energy for Industry/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Professional Manufacturer Everun Er08 CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.500W EEC Electric scooter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Electric Motorcycle . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Solar Electric Motorcycle. Moreover,Wechip Customized Booting Logo Rk3318 H96 Max 4+32GB/4+64GB IPTV Set Top Box 4K, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (OEM 1500W EEC Electric Scooter , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale), maintenance (Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,New Arrival 4K Smart S905X2 TV Box 4+64GB X96 Mini), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.0.25mm Natural Wood Face Veneer, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},2L Empty Tin Container for Engine Oil Lubricant. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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