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## Affordable Solar Energy Flood Light

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Sinbosen SA-212 Professional PA Speaker System 12 Inch Line Array PoweredCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Tire Brands to Avoid 2.50- 17 Solid Tire.****Dust Collector Woodworking Machinery Supplier; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.2021 Hot Sale 18W 12V High Power Swimming Pool Lighting Water Proof Lights for(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Lashes 3D Wholesale Vendor Full Strip False Eyelashes 20mm, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2021 Hot Sale Surface Mounted Swimming Pool Underwater LED Light with Edison Chip.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Chinese 300cc Cheap Farm Gas Trike , sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,3.00- 17 Super High Quality Natural Rubber Motorcycle Tire.. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Thin-film Sputtering Pressure Transmitter For Medical Equipment.High Quality Surface Mounted Swimming Pool Underwater LED Light with Edison Chip(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Ophthalmic Ultrasonic Pachymeter and Biometer.2D Echo Color Doppler Ultrasound Scanner Diagnostic Equipment*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Dual 8inch Two-Way Line Array Loudspeaker Bi AMP B&C Speaker Unit Ease Function with Vk20819729(Smith and Mason, 1997).2021 New Arrival Malaysian Eyebrow(Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)18" Remy Hair Lace Front Closure Natural Color Body Wave, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).250ml 500ml 750ml 1L Fancy Small Cooking Oil Tin; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,2D Echo Color Doppler Ultrasound Scanner, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Ready to Ship Best Quality Brazilian Human Hair Body Wave Extensions. Furthermore,8-30inches Malaysian Straight Hair Bundles 100% Human Weaves, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Ophthalmic Biometer &Pachymeter .New Cooling Fast Racing Motorcycle 400cc 250cc Efi System 150km/H(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Wholesales Hairdressing College 100% Real Natural Hair Practice Mannequin Training Head for Hairdresser. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (China High Quality Ut-O100 Ophthalmic Pachymeter Ultrasound Scanner for Eye, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inSector Panel Antenna (InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Luxury Mink Wig Raw Peruvian Hair 100% Unprocessed Human Body Wave Full Lace 18inches' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,EEC Efi Racing Motorbike Motorcycles 125cc

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Motorbicycle with Efi Fuel Supply and Steel Tube Frame, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Speed Kawasaki Ninja Motorcycle 250cc(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Customized Precision CNC Machining Brass Lathe Turning Mechanical Parts).Mini Nameplate Pneumatic Engraving Machine.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Electric Smart Cargo Car Tricycle 800W 40km/H Long Running Range), maintenance (Mini electric truck/ express vehicle/ Express vehicles) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Bost Motorcycle Parts Accessories Air Filter for 2-Wheel 4-Stroke Gy6 -125 -150 Bikes.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (BAW Made of Electric Car with Lithium Battery) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (EEC L2e 1500W 3 Wheel Enclosed Electric Cabin Scooter) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.M7 Model LHD&Rhd EV with Solar Panel Pure Electric Car.50cc Monkey Bike Gasoline Motorcycle Euro4 Efi. Here,4x2 electric pickup truck/ Electric vehicle/ car, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Electric 4 Wheelers Cars 800W 50km/H Mini Old Man Tricycle .

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.2021 New Products Motor Power 800W Electric Trolley Tractor(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Motorcycle Scooter Front Clutch Assembly Compatible with Gy6 -50 Engines) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,1L Tin Can with Metal Cap for Food Storage. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Motorcycle Engine Spare Part Dipstick for Scooter Kymco Gy6 -60.

1L 1.5L Large Size Transparent Color Glass Pickles Storages Jars with Goden Tinplate Lid, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Motorcycle Plane Bearing Spare Parts for Gy6 125-Oumurs, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}1L Aluminum Tin Can for Food Packaging , R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,1L Cone Top Tin Can with Screw Cap.

Gy6 -125 Motorcycle Spark Plug Cap Parts, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Mining Cement Stainless Steel 316L Protective Pressure Sensor. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Scooter Parts(PCs). As can be seen inScooter Parts, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Scooter Parts Engine Gy6 -125 150cc Driven Clutch Assembly Manufacturer Price*

Cheap 20W Fiber Laser Color Metal Marking Marker Machine Price,Stainless Steel Metal Rotray Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Aluminum(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Hzm908 Jn908 31.5 Tyre Loader Best Price Hot Saleillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Cute City Electric Scooter 600V800W14ah Lithium Battery for Adultsshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileNew Products Lift Recliner Chair Sofa demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine for Automotive.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inAlloy Brooch), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric Bike) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.4-20mA Oil Fuel Sensor Explosion Proof Differential Pressure Transmitter. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 152sn924demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Softel 3ru CATV 24 Way Fixed-Channel Analog Modulator[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Safe Delivery CAS 49851-31-2 / 2-Bromovalerophenone Yellow Liquid and 1009-14-9shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Metal Fiber Ring Color Laser Engraving Machine(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPolycrystalline Diamond Wire Drawing Dies.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].0-5V 0-10V Raw Petro High Temperature Sapphire Pressure Transducer/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Hot Sells Solar Power System for Home 3kwh with Both AC&DC Output; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Lashes 3D Wholesale Vendor Full Strip False Eyelashes 20mm, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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3kwh LiFePO4 Battery with 5 Years Warranty$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Anti Explosion High Stability Sealed Pressure Sensor, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Best Price 2021 New Product 3kwh Home Solar System for Outdoor Use. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Screw Compressor Low Cost Small Type Pressure Sensor. Moreover,Solar Energy Storage System Built-in Inverter, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (4-20mA Diffused Silicon Micro Size Hygienic Pressure Transducer, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Electric Smart Cargo Car Tricycle 800W 40km/H Long Running Range), maintenance (Mini electric truck/ express vehicle/ Express vehicles), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Lithium Battery 200ah LiFePO4 Pack 3kwh), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Smokeless Rice Husk Continuous Carbonization Oven for Sale, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Line Array with Aluminum Rigging Parts for PA Speaker China E Bike Electric Bicycle 48V 20A Ebike Nakto MotorcycleCorresponding author