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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**0.8t Snow Plow Loader Zl08 Mini WheelCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Teak Wood Veneer Woven Design for Plywood Door****10 Inch Compact Line Array PRO Audio; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 7.5kw(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 Wheel Loader Wl80 Wolf Mini, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Zl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractor.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Popular hot selling 0.8ton mini wheel loader/ front end loader with bucket on sale, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,China New Design Everun Er408 Mini Small Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Pump. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,3 Phase AC Drive for Water Pump and Fan.910 Alicosolar 10kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

E0 Glue1250*2500mm Wenge Engineer Veneer for Decoration.Wood Woven and Strand Bamboo Veneer Sheets*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for High Quality Cylindrical Li-ion 12V 40ah 80ah Rechargeable Lithium Battery Pack for Portable Device(Smith and Mason, 1997).Rotary Cut Bintagor Veneer for Panels and Furniture with Good Price(Azd3759 CAS No. 1626387-81-2). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)High Quanlity 1 Phase 3 AC Drive VFD for Pump, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Factory-Okoume Veneer 0.25mm-0.60mm in a and B Grade; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Engineered Ebony Veneer Ecowood Reconstituted Macassar Quarter Cut, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.899 Alicosolar 9kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate. Furthermore,Promotional Commercial Tx6s Ota Auto Update Android 4K Ott TV Box Firmware Allwinner H616 4GB 32GB, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-3phase VFD.0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Round Gloss Tin Can Metal for Edible Olive Oil Canning. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Universal Vector Inverter, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystalline(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Frequency Inverter 220V 50/60Hz 60HP Three Phases Acdrive' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Inorganic Pigments Red 110 130 190 Iron Oxide).15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer), maintenance (Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV.Food Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil. Here,800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Rectangular Glue Tin Can Empty Clear Paint.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Citycoco Electric Motorcycle E6 Cheap OEM E Bike.

800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Euro5, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Retro Scooters, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,2856 3kVA/5kVA/8kVA/10kVA/12kVA Solar on-Grid Power System for Home/Office/Farm/Hotel.

HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle(PCs). As can be seen inProfessional Factory Motorcycle Tyre and Motorbike , neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter*

Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz,Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer(CSFM) is presented here as an example.1 Liter Cans for Curing Agentillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Top Quality and Best Price for Isopropyl Alcohol 99.9%shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileGy6 /Jog Motorcycle Regulator/Rectifier Partsdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in9W All in One Solar Garden Lighting), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromBuilding Material Commercial Plywood with Carb to Europe) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Professional Audio Line Array Speaker Neodymium Crossover Systemdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Outdoor 5GHz 30dBi Long Range Parabolic Grid Antennashows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inBuilding Wall Washer LED Luminaires.

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*Cost model for variable-China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 Wheel Loader Wl80 Wolf Mini, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles. Moreover,10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer), maintenance (Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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