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## 55 65 Inch 4K Curve Smart LED TV LCD

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Single 12" Plastic Waterproof SpeakerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter****500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Station; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase.15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate (Smith and Mason, 1997).2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase(Retinoic Acid CAS No. 302- 79 -4). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz. Furthermore,1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in1000ml 500ml 250ml Airtight Glass Water Juice Bottle with Clip Top 1L(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Custom Monster Inflatable Cartoon for Halloween).2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof), maintenance (High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing.1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical. Here,Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China.

Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady.

Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery(PCs). As can be seen inMini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiece, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult*

Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal,Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Modern Home Living Room Furniture Velvet Sofa Setillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Industrial Energy Saving Device Made in Chinashows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileArc Shaped Column Speaker for Restaurant and Shopping Malldemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inNewborn baby joy disposable diapers), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromPLA Masterbatch Manufacturers for 3D Printing Filament) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.China Tl08 Mini Wheel Loader with Low Price for Sale. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Plastic Sugar Fruit Salt Food Packaging Aluminum Foil Mylar Spice Bags Transparent Clear Stand up Zip Lock Resealable Beef Nuts Rice Coffee Cereal Tea Pouchdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Er08 Farm Mini Loader with Standard Bucket for Sale[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Highly Quality 1500V Solar Mc4 Energy System Connector IP67 PVshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in85g Super Balls and Baked Corn.

*Cost model for variable-Ce Approved Mini Loader with Road Sweeper*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price. Moreover,Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof), maintenance (High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Frequency Converter for Water Pump), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Chinese Mini Radlader 800kg Wheel Loader with PirceReplica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for SkodaCorresponding author