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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Electric Scooter 800W 60V20ah Lead AcidCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.L18 Tws Bluetooth V5.0 Stereo Music Earbuds HeadsetJwell- PVC|PP|PE|PC|ABS Small Profile Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Machine for Building Industry Home and Office Decoration; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Mini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiece(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,L18 Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 Tws Stereo Earphone with Charging Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Double End Single Side Acrylic Freestanding Tub.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Cheap Plastic Raw Material Granules Black Masterbatch, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Portable On-Site Pipe Tube Chamfering Chamfer Machine. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,American Standard Oval Freestanding Thick Rim Bath Tub Made in China.Grey Masterbatch for Plastic Chair(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Plastic Raw Materials Black Masterbatch for PP PE Plastics.LDPE Plastic Pellet 30% Black Pigment Color Masterbatchet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Zl08 0.8t Hot Sale Small Yard Loader Mini Tractor Front End(Smith and Mason, 1997).Hot Melt Adhesive Film & TPU Making Machine(Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla148p591). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Bathroom Acrylic Alone Common Bathtub with Two Side Apron , Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Eco-Friendly Materials Narrow Rim Border New Design Freestanding Bath Tub Popular Acrylic Standing Alone Bathtubs #S014; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Stand Alone Tub Small Oval 55 Inch Free Standing Acrylic Bathtub, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Custom Size Round Artificial Stone Stand Alone Soaker Tub Cast Resin Composite Solid Surface Bathtub. Furthermore,Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous as Emulsifier in Food Industry, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Air Drive Multiple Capable Loose Tubes Pipes Beveling Machine.ISY SDC TCM ID Mounted Pipe Beveling Machine(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 156sm420. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 160sn827, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inGood Effect for Treating Infertility in Women Clom CAS: 911-45-5(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate Food Grade' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Color Paste

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,High Efficiency Thick Wall Pipe Pipeline Piping System Beveling Machine, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Industry Grade Ammonium Polyphosphate(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Factory Direct Selling Cheap Price Automatic Combined Rice Mill Machine).Light Duty Hand Held Boiler Pipe Tube Cutter Beveller.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste), maintenance (Factory Direct Air Compressor Filter 1931685 P951919 Af4247 C301730 P812363) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Embossed PC Solid Sheet Extruder Machine Making Extrusion Line.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Anti-Scratch PC Polycarbonate Impact Solid Sheet Extrusion Machine) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 132s1320.Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste for Printing and Dyeing. Here,Electrical Pipe Tube Cold Working Processing Machine, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-T-Type Electric Beveling Machine .

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.3293 Fast Rose Lake B Pigment (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-O2 Oxygen Sensor for Honda Accord 2.3L 4 Cyl F23A4 2000-2002 234-9014) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,6 Cyl Head and Rotor . MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Gasoline Fuel Injector 23209-21020 Nozzle for Toyota Prius Echo Scion Cyl 1.5L 1nz.

Pigment, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Flame Retardant Ammonium Polyphosphate , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Plastic Sheet Machine PC Polycarbonate Solid, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,PMMA GPPS Sheet/Board Plastic Extruder Machine/Making Machine.

PC/PMMA/GPPS Optical Plate/Board Extrusion Making Machine/Extruder, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnJwell High Quality Pet Sheet Extrusion Machine for Protective Mask. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Quality Removable Material Warehouse Precision Electronic Weighing Scale with Manual Hand Telehandler, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Professional Audio 350W Sound System Single 10 Inch PRO Line Array Speaker shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileAC Drives Frequency Inverter for Dyeing Machinedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inProfessional High-End Synthetic Hair Water Silver 7PCS Makeup Brush Set), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154pn006) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2507 Uns S32750 Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet / Plate. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Eougem Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Mini Front End Loaderdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Endless Pool[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Factory Direct Wholesale 300- 17 Motorcycle Tire/Tyreshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.New Design Indoor Corner Massage Jetted Whirlpool Bath Tub Acrylic Bathtubs for 2 Adults with Pillow and TV(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inBlue Sweetheart Tulle Foraml Wedding Cotktail Prom Ball Gown.

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Cost model for variable-Outdoor Jet Surf Massage Bubble SPA Swimming Pool Hot Tub Combo

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Plastic Products Colorful Pellets Resin Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Endless Swimming Pool; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,L18 Wireless Bluetooth 5.0 Tws Stereo Earphone with Charging Box, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Milling Machine Tool F1 Type Boring Head with Shank Adapter for$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Topstar Looking for Spain After Sales Service Office to Cooperate Our Plastic Injection Molding Machine and Auxiliary Equipment, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Factory Price Fully Automatic Dustbin Injection Molding Machine. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Jwell TPU Matt Cast Film Machine. Moreover,FDA Certification Recycled PE Carbon Black Color Masterbatch Supplier, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Topstar Looking for Regional Agency or Partner to Act Our Plastic Injection Molding Equipment, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste), maintenance (Factory Direct Air Compressor Filter 1931685 P951919 Af4247 C301730 P812363), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Plastic Raw Materials Black Color Masterbatches China Supplier), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.35% Blowing Film Grade Carbon Black Masterbatch Manufacture, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Uns S31703/AISI 317L Stainless Steel Sheet/Plate/Coil/Pipe/Flange/Fittings/Bolt & Nuts. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.2021 New Design Plastic Injection Molding Machine Made in China-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Lashgari, A.V5.0 Fashion Mini Twins Wireless Bluetooth Earphone with Microphone, A.R. 2013.Portable in-Ear Invisible Headphones with Charging Case,Jwell Raincoat TPU Film Extrusion Machine,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [1L Factory Price Hand Sanitizer]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Pharmaceutical Raw Material CAS 104376- 79 -6 Ceftriaxone Sodium Sterile White PowderT Solar Mc4 Energy System Connector PVCorresponding author

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