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## Aluminum Square Reception Desk Office Furniture Conference Meeting Negotiating Table

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**3 Phase VFD Vector AC Drives 1.5kw 2.2kw 4kw Variable Frequency DriveCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Granular Ammonium Sulphate****Fast Ship 800W 1000W 1200W 60V 72V 20ah Battery Electric Motorcycle From China; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Fertilizer N21%(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,China Supplier Ammonium Sulphate Compound Fertilizer, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Crystal Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate for Coumpound.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Raw Material of Making Compound Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate N1%, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Crystal Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Crystal Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphate Vegetables and Fruits Fertilizer.Hipower Top 10 Speakers Professional Audio PA Loudspeaker 8ohm(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Professional Audio PA Subwoofer Component Speakers.650W-18 Inch Subwoofer Speaker Manufacture China Factory Directly*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage(Smith and Mason, 1997).Nh4 2so4 Chemical Formula for Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer(Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)280mm Magnet, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Bocinas Prosound 18 Pulgadas PRO Speaker Ruidoso Audio Subwoofer Parlente Hot Sale; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Professional Audio PA Subwoofer Component Speakers Bocinas, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.L18 /86130 100%Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1000W RMS Subwoofer. Furthermore,Additive PE Green Color Masterbatches Manufacturer, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-L18 /86131 Falante Professional 18inch Subwoofer 700W New Product China Supplier Hot Sale.L18 /86138-Good Feedback! Professional 18 Inch PA Speaker 1500W RMS Neodymium Subwoofer(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.L18 / 6620- 18 Polegadas PRO Audio Subwoofer Alto Falante 650W. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (OEM Custom Square Rectangle Round Rubber Cover, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inGrade Uns N08330 Stainless Steel Rod(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;N21% White Granular Ammonium Sulphate' names:

►Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Ammonium Sulfate Nitrogen 21%: based on 36-foot,Agriculture Fertilizer N 21% Ammonium Sulfate,21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystalline,Agriculture Fertilizer Nitrogen 21% Ammonium Sulfate China Factory, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Power Steel Grade Nitrogen 20.5% Industrial Ammonium Sulphate Chemical Fertilizer

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,White Extrusion Granular Ammonium Sulphate China Factory, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Granular Grade Ammonium Sulphate N20.5% Nitrogen Fertilizer(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Business Laptop Backpack School Travel).Nitrogen Fertilizer Color Granular Ammonium Sulphate 20.5+24s.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (China Suppliers Alone Type Wraped Beam Disc Machenism Padlock), maintenance (Dust Proof Steel Shackle Padlocks with Master Key) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Padlock-G38PDP.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Breaker Lock) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Padlock) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Alone Type Wraped Beam Leaves Iron Padlock .Fuso Truck & Bus Turbo Td04 49377-03041 Me201258 for 4m40 Engine Mitsubishi Pajero. Here,Gt1544s 454083-0001 1002829 Garrett Engine Turbo for Vw Passat, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Engine Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz Om906 La K27.2 Om366/Om642/Om362/Om441/Om442/Om447/Om457.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Gt1544sm Tdi Engine Bnm 045253019d 733783-5008s 733783-5007s Turbo(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Universal Turbo T3t4 T04e T3.63 Ar + 76mm 3" Intercooler Pipe Piping Kit) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Truck Parts Turbocharger for Mercedes-Benz/Chrysler/Dodge Om647 Gt2256 6470900280 736088-0003. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber Parts.

Gt1541V 704765-0003/708450-0018 Turbine Wheel Shaft for 700960-0011, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Gt1544sm 733783-5007s Turbo for Volkswagen Fox 1.4L Tdi Engine Bnm, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Cosmetic Grade 99% Purity All Trans Retinoic Acid 302- 79 -4 Tretinoin/Vitamin a, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Customized Rubber Spacer Black Silicone Bushing.

Gym Rubber Flooring Floor Mat Roll, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Ihi Turbocharger 2001-04 Peugeot. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Gt1749V (PCs). As can be seen inDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160s325n507, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*2004-10 for Volkswagen*

Borg Warner BV45 Turbo 5303-988-0337 Core Chra for Nissan,T250-04 452055-5004s Turbocharger for Gemini III Engine(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Industry Grade Ammonium Polyphosphateillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.25kw Electromagnetic Induction Heater for Tools Weldingshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileJAC300 Series Frequency Converter Three Phase Solar Pump Inverter Power Supplydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Gtb1749vk Turbo Cartridge 798128-0004 for 2011- Peugeot Boxer.

Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inScissor Lift Solid Tire Black Design 12.5X4.25), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromFood Packaging Bag) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Gt1749vk 798015-0002 A6710900380 Turbo for Ssang-Yong Korando C200 2.0 D20dtf Engine. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Whole Sale Hammerhead 150cc Go Kart with Partsdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Gt1544V 740611-5002s 28201-2A400 Turbo for Hyundai Verna[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.China Wolf Wl80 Articulated Mini Loadershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Aftermarket BV45 53039880337 Turbocharger for 2010-12 Nissan Pathfinder Navara Engine(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCopper Quinolate.

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*Cost model for variable-Factory Supply Glycyl-L-Tyrosine*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Dl-Isoleucine Powder CAS 443- 79 -8/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Glycyl- L-Tyrosine; 658- 79 -7; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,China Supplier Ammonium Sulphate Compound Fertilizer, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

L-Pyroglutamic Acid. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Dl-Isoleucine Powder CAS Number 443- 79 -8, indicated in1L Tin Can for Camellia Oil , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

98% Uvarigranol B\C\D\E Standard Reference Materials Plant Extracts$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Longyu Produce Nano Copper Oxide Nanoparticles 1317-38-0, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)High Purity 99.0%Min. Ademetionine Disulfate Tosylate . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Centella Asiatica Extract 99% Asiaticoside 16830-15-2. Moreover,Crovell Supply Raw Material CAS 104-29-0 Chlorphenesin for Cosmetic, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Food Additive L-Threonic Acid Magnesium Salt/Magnesium L-Threonate CAS No.: 778571-57-6, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (China Suppliers Alone Type Wraped Beam Disc Machenism Padlock), maintenance (Dust Proof Steel Shackle Padlocks with Master Key), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Polyethylene Green Color Masterbatch), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Pipe Bevelling Machine , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},ISO Certificated Company Supply Skin Whitening Retinoic Acid Powder. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Green Plastic Masterbatch Blowing Film Grade-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Granular Ammonium Sulphate, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Yellow Color Plastic Masterbatch.*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [38mm 42mm CATV Plug in 0~20dB Hfc Attenuator Pad]

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Gt1544sm 733783-5007s Turbo for Volkswagen Fox 1.4L Tdi Engine Bnm, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Supply API 99%Min Dalbavancin CAS 171500- 79 -1 Raw Material Powder.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [25kw engine garden/farm/ construction 0.8ton front end backhoe wheel loader]

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USBM. 1987.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel System Nozzle Dlla145pn574,Master Batch Organic Colors-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Model Qtf12-15 Big Scale Fly Ash Concrete Hollow Paving Brick Manufacturing Conrete Making Machine.]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Professional DJ Line Array Sound Speakers DSP Powered Loudspeaker AmplifierFactory Price Ammonium Sulfate for Crystal Compound FertilizerCorresponding author