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## 4-20mA 0~5VDC Pressure Sensor Transmitter RS485 Price

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**HDPE Water/Gas Supply Pipe Extrusion MachineryCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Jarol Frequency Inverter with High Quality ****E320L/B/C/D Boom Arm Bucket Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Linyi 9mm/12mm/15mm/18mm Pine/Bintangor/Okoume Film Faced Plywood(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,China Hot Sale Frequency Converter/Inverter 380V 50/60Hz, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Residential Grid Tied 6kw Solar Power System for Home.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Best Factory China Environmentally Friendly 800W CE Certification Electric Motorcycle for Adult, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Good Quality Factory Directly Electric Motorcycle 800W 1000W 60V for Adults. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,on Grid Solar Panel System 30kw Tied Home Power.Tractor loader/ mini loader with four wheels for loading(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

2021 60V 20ah EEC Motorcycle Electric Moped Scooter 500/ 800W Motorbike.Chinese Industrial Titan Small 0.8 Ton Articulated Earth Mover Euro Auto Mini Farm Truck Wheel Tractor Front End Loader for Sale*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Home Power 20 Kw Energy(Smith and Mason, 1997).Newest Hot Sale Cheap Chinese Modern Self Balancing Mobility Adult Lithium Battery 800W Electric Motorcycles Scooters(The Use of Tiletamine Xylazine Anesthesia for Feral Cat Guideline CAS: 14176-50-2). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Three Phase Frequency Inverter Made in China Hot Sale, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).0.8ton mini wheel loader with small bucket for multifunctional use; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Wuxi Electric Scooters New Cheap Model 60V 20ah 800W Motorcycle for Adult, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery. Furthermore,Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Power for Home, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-5kw Solar-Diesel Generation Hybrid Grid- Tied Power System.Global Certificated 30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Commercial Projects(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.2852 Alicosolar Solar Energy System 10kw 5kw Power Home 15kw Grid Tied. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Cheap Commercial Plywood for Construction Decoration and Furniture Use, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla156sm139(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Kodi TV Box Fully Loaded Chrome Android 9.1 OS T95 Max H6 4G 32g Internet Satellite' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Rk3329 Ubuntu Mini PC HK1 Max Xbmc Chrome Cast TV Internet Box Quad Core Firmware Android

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,220VDC to 220VAC Variable Frequency Inverter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Solar Pump Inverter 1.5kw AC Drive Frequency Welding Machine(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Latest Popularl Luxurious Wedding Dress Prom Dresses Uw4047A).Electrical VFD Frequency Inverter Three Phase 220V 380V 7.5/11kw for Solar Pump.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin), maintenance (380V 400Hz 3p AC Drive Hot 15kw Frequency Converter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Single Phase Input and Output 220V Able 640 Static Frequency Converter 400Hz.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (3 Phase Mini AC DC Frequency Inverter Motor Speed Controller Power Supply 5.5kw-110kw) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (VFD Frequency Converter Inverter for Constant Pressure Water Supply) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.AC Drive Solar Pump Inverter 220V 380V Three Phase Inverters.7.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump. Here,large cabin and powerful engine Customized 0.8ton mini wheel loader, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Qingzhou 0.8ton Shovel Loader Small Front with Bucket for Sale.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Eougem 0.8ton Articulated Payloader Zl08 with Changchai Engine(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-AL908 0.8ton Wheel Loader Machinery for Sale) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Chinese Everun Zl08 800kg 0.8 Ton Compact Small Mini Wheel Loader with Snow Bucket. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)800kg China Small Front High Quality Wheel Loader for Sale in Europe.

Melamine Glue WBP Commerical Plywood, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}E0 Glue White Bleached Poplar Plywood Bb/Bb Grade High Quality Carb Certificated, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,18mm Brown Film Faced Finger Jointed Plywood for Concrete Formwork.

18mm Embossed Melamine Faced Commercial Plywood for Furniture Making, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Filmfaced Plywood with High Quality and Cheap Price. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).9mm E1 Glue Bintangor Plywood Board(PCs). As can be seen inCheap Price Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Steel Grade, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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E-Scooter Electric Motorcycle Manufacture/Electric Adult off Road E-Motorcycle 800W,AC Drive(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Plastic PE Pipe Production Lineillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Professional Loudspeaker Line-Array Speaker Sound Audio System with Vr112shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileWolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Forkdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Hot Sale 60V 800W Brushless Motor Two Wheel Electric Motorcycle.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inIP65 Waterproof Wireless Security Outdoor Solar Street Light Motion Sensor 60 LED Wall for Garden), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromSolar Tool Set/Bad/Box Cable Stripping Wire Cutter Mc4 Connector Spanner Wrench for PV System Panel 14-10AWG 2.5-6mm2) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.China Reliable Quality 3.7kw 3-Phase Solar Water Pump Inverter for Irrigation System. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.High Quality Chemical Product 4- demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,15kw Grid Tied Solar System[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loadershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inGuangxi White Marble Tiles Slabs Floor & Wall.

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*Cost model for variable-0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].12kw Grid Tied Complete Set Easy Installation Solar Energy System for Home Use or Industrial/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,China Hot Sale Frequency Converter/Inverter 380V 50/60Hz, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Chinese Frequency AC Drive Pure Sine Wave Inverter Mini Water Pump Motor Controller$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.200cc/300cc Adults Racing Go Kart for Sale Ce Certificate, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Water Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.0.4kw 0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump. Moreover,Jarol Strong Overload Capacity AC Drive Frequency Inverter , and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (China Pumping AC Variable Frequency Drive Solar Pump Inverter for Submersible, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin), maintenance (380V 400Hz 3p AC Drive Hot 15kw Frequency Converter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Sporty Electric Scooter ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.SMD3014/2835 AC/DC Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},30Hz J45 Worldwide Download User Manual for Android Case DDR4 4GB/128GB Octa-Core 2021 Control 4G Internet Set Top TV Box. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Best Selling 4X4 Farm ATV-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Mular, A.L. 1982.RGB/White 18W PAR56 LED Swimming Pool Light.*PAR56 IP68 Waterproof Outdoor Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light.*PAR56 316ss 18watt LED Underwater Swimming Pool Lights with PC Niche, Montreal. 265 pp. [Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.18W Recessed IP68 PAR56 LED swimming Pool Underwater Light.*18W RGB Underwater LED PAR56 Bulb Light for Swimming Pool Lighting.*PAR56 316ss 18watt LED Underwater Swimming Pool Lights with PC Niche, Montreal. 319 pp. [OEM ODM Public DJ PA Wooden Speaker]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.Hot Sales ABS Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light 18watt.*Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,*vol. 128. pp. 563-575. [24 Channels Fixed Modulator]

Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.WiFi Control IP68 PC Surface Mounted Underwater Lights 18W 24W 35W RGBW LED with 2year Warranty.24watt IP68 Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Sugammadex Sodium CAS 343306- 79 -6 Manufacturer and Supplier]

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O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.*The Thinnest Wall Pool Underwater Swimming Light 18 Volts.*vol. 1.Rosen 7kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424. [3X3 LCD wall panel surveillance digital display screen]

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Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-3-18mm Melamine Plywood/Melamine Board/Fancy Paper Face Plywood for Indoor Use.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Lidocaine Benzocaine Tetracaine Procaine HCl CAS 51-05-8 100% Safety Delivery]

Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy, Ar., Lashgari, A., Fouladgar, M.M., and Skibniewski, M.J. 2012. Estimating capital and operational costs of backhoe shovels.*Journal of Civil Engineering and Management,*vol. 18, no. 3. pp 378-385. [custom car letter body logo emblem]

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Stebbins, S.A. 1987. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines.*Information Circular*9170, 94. US Bureau of Mines. [No Flicker Glare 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports]

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USBM. 1987.Factory Direct Sale on Grid Complete Tied Solar Systems 1kw 10kw Panel System,Grid Tied Wind Solar Power System-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Custom Plain White Sublimation Modern Ceramic Coffee Mug]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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