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## Full Automatic Lacha Paratha Machine

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**China Suppllier Ammonium Sulphate 21% Nitrogen FertilizerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with Edison Chip****55 Inch LCD Video Wall Display with Controller; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.150ml Plastic Clear White Bullet Liquid Bottle for Cosmetic Industry(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,14" to 22' Inch Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheel for KIA Rims, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Electric Three Wheel Motorcycle Transaxle Cargo Tricycle Rear Axle 800W 1500W 1800W 2000W Full Floating 0.5ton~1.2ton Accessories.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

300cc Cargo Tricycle of Asia Market, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Building Material Commercial Plywood with Carb to Europe. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,AL908 800kg Rated Load Wheel Loader with CE Approved for Sale.China Jiaxing Jarol Frequency Inverter 0.75kw/220V New(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Portable Laptop Digital Automatic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.Haiqin Brand 0.8ton Mini Loader *et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for PE Green Color Masterbatches Supplier in China(Smith and Mason, 1997).Jarol Solar Inverter 5.5kw 3 Phase(Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Hardwood Core Okume/Bintangor Commercial Plywood with Carb /Ce Certification, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Textile Crane Centrifugal 380V Variable Frequency Drive VFD; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,2021 Hot Sale Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with CE RoHS IP68 Reports, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.AL908 Wood Gripper Wheel Loader with Euro III Engine for Sale. Furthermore,Inverter Cabinet VFD Frequency AC Drives 15kw Motor, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-2021 New Design Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with Edison Chip.12V RGB Resin Filled Underwater Pool Lights with 2 Years Warranty(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.loader with excavator grapple wheel mini for sale good quality. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (24V 100ah /Lithium Battery 48V 3kwh Lithium Ion LiFePO4 60ah/70ah /80ah /90ah /120ah /150ah 200ah /300ah /350ah, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inBuy Real Pharmaceutical Intermediates Pmk Glycidate Powder 13605-48-6(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,MS-3100) Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan Pachymeter Biometer

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,4.8kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home Portable Power Generators, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Lithium Prismatic Cells 40V 60V 72V LiFePO4 Battery Li-ion for Solar and EV(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (New Hot Sale Product Equipment Portable Medical Oxygen Concentrator).Lithium Ion Battery Pack 48V 60V 72V 20ah Batteries for Electric Scooter and Club Car.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (12V 24V 48V 40ah Lithium Battery Solar 100ah 150ah 200ah 300ah 400ah 500ah Energy Storage), maintenance (5L Metal Round Cans for Paint or Chemical Packaging) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,150cc Motorcycle.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (5L Vegetable Cooking Oil Custom Tinplate Square Can) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Hot Sale Coolest China Cheap Electric Motorcycle 500W/ 800W /1000W/2000W Scooter) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Wholesale Plastic Square 1 Liter Fertilizer Bottle.Accredited Ce E Bike Batteries 36V 48V Ebike Battery 10ah-40ah Lithium. Here,50cc Motorcycle, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Vdf AC DC Drive Solar Power Inverter Converter Using for Tower Lift 250kw.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Zhenhua Classic Motorcycle Dax 125cc Euro4(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Super Cooling Smart Electric Scooter 500W 800W Motorcycle) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Wholesale 1L Round Empty Fully Synthetic Brake Oil Tin Can with Metal or Aluminum Caps. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Scooter / Motorcycle Electric Motor Power 800W 1kw 2kw 3kw.

5GHz Dual Pol Sector Antenna with Enclosure, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarized Enclosure Antenna , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}2.4/ 5GHz 10dBi Rubber WiFi Antenna, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Customized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Ion.

5GHz 18dBi Sector WiFi Antenna, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*125cc Retro Scooter Motorcycle. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Handheld Double Heads WiFi Wireless Ultrasound Color Doppler Probe for iPhone/iPad/Android/Ios(PCs). As can be seen in3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Hot Selling 800W Brushless Motor Electric Scooter Motorcycle*

Lady's E-Scooter 800W Hot Sale Made in China,High Quality Electric Motorbike with 800W Motor(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Pump Inverter Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers AC Supplierillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Electric Motorcycleshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while5kw Single Phase Home Grid Tied Solar Power Systemdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,800W 72V China Electric Tricycle for Handicapped.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSingle-Wall Paper Cup with Aluminiun Fiol Coated), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromManufacturer Supply Cosmetic Raw Material 98%-102% Tretinoin ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.5GHz Antenna High Gain 16dBi Panel. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Wolf Baumaschinen Zl08 Radlader with Canopydemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2021 New Design Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with CE RoHS IP68 Reports[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancyshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.5GHz 29.5dBi Die Cast Grid Antenna(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHigh-quality disposable baby diaper.

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*Cost model for variable-No Flicker Glare 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].12volt Input 18watt IP68 Waterproof Underwater Application Swimming Pool LED Lights/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,14" to 22' Inch Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheel for KIA Rims, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

5GHz 27dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.TUV Certificate Gried Tied on Grid 20kw Solar PV System, indicated inZl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

High Quality 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with Edison Chip$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.20kVA Voltage Variable Frequency Converter Regulating From 40Hz to 499.9Hz 0-520V, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)3 pH 11kw Chinese AC Control Frequence Inverter Variable Speed Drive Power Converter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Water Proof Vet Ultrasound Scanner. Moreover,Three Phase Vector Frequence Converter with High Performance, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 Series, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (12V 24V 48V 40ah Lithium Battery Solar 100ah 150ah 200ah 300ah 400ah 500ah Energy Storage), maintenance (5L Metal Round Cans for Paint or Chemical Packaging), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,16"X6.0" 16'x7.0' 16X8.0 16X10 Trailer Steel Rim Wheel), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.AC Drive Frequnce Converter Frequence Inverter Manufacturer Supplier, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},14"X5.0"J 14'x5.5'j 14X6.0j 14X7.0j Inch Steel Wheel for Sport Trailer. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

200ml Flat Shoulder Plastic HDPE Black Shampoo BottleSolar Power System 8kw Grid Tied SolutionCorresponding author