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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Professional Line Array System Single 10 Inch Neodymium Vr10Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Customized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Ion****Custom Cat Food Bags; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.5GHz 18dBi Sector WiFi Antenna(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,125cc Retro Scooter Motorcycle, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Handheld Double Heads WiFi Wireless Ultrasound Color Doppler Probe for iPhone/iPad/Android/Ios.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Hot Selling 800W Brushless Motor Electric Scooter Motorcycle, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Lady's E-Scooter 800W Hot Sale Made in China. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,High Quality Electric Motorbike with 800W Motor.800W 72V China Electric Tricycle for Handicapped(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Two Wheel Adult Automatic 800W 48V Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle with Pedals.5GHz Antenna High Gain 16dBi Panel*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Frequnce Converter AC Drive 380V 11kw(Smith and Mason, 1997).2021 New Design Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with CE RoHS IP68 Reports(Factory Wholesales Painkiller Solutions Free Sample Novocaine CAS: 51-05-8 Canada Procaine Promotion). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)5GHz 29.5dBi Die Cast Grid Antenna, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).No Flicker Glare 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,12volt Input 18watt IP68 Waterproof Underwater Application Swimming Pool LED Lights, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna . Furthermore,5GHz 27dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-TUV Certificate Gried Tied on Grid 20kw Solar PV System.High Quality 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with Edison Chip(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.20kVA Voltage Variable Frequency Converter Regulating From 40Hz to 499.9Hz 0-520V. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (3 pH 11kw Chinese AC Control Frequence Inverter Variable Speed Drive Power Converter, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCe IP67 2.5mm2~6.0mm2 Male/Female DC 1000V Mc4 Solar Cable Connector(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Water Proof Vet Ultrasound Scanner' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,14"X5.0"J 14'x5.5'j 14X6.0j 14X7.0j Inch Steel Wheel for Sport Trailer

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Eougem Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Mini Front End Loader(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Logistics Service FedEx Express From China to Myanmar).Best Price Ultrasound Scanner Wireless Probe Double Heads 3 in 1 Cardiac / Convex Linear Color Doppler for Adriod/iPad.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Ultrasonic a B Scan Ophthalmic Eye Ultrasound Scanner with Low Price), maintenance (Ce Approved Medical Portable Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Machine ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Vitreous Hemorrhage .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (500kw on Grid Tied Hybrid Solar Power Plant Station System) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High Quality Classic China Motor Cargo Three Wheel Motorcycle ) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Motorcycle with Dryweight 120-220kg.Ce Approved 10inch Portable Laptop Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Scanner . Here,Zl08 Chinese Small Compact Garden Farm Tractor Front End Mini Wheel Loader with Attachments, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-B5 200cc 250cc 300cc Cargo Tricycle with Cabin Motorcycle Three Wheel Loncin Zongshen Lifan Engine.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Growatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar Inverter(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Hot Selling Tricycle 250cc/ 300cc Three Wheel Motorcycle) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,ACTIVE AL908 0.8 ton Mini Wheel Loader with Wood Gripper and Pallet Fork. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Sp-1000ap Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter.

Adult 150cc 200cc 300cc EPA Approved Three Wheel Mptorcycle Scooter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (300cc Road Legal Ault Street Gas Three Wheel Scooter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}China Supplier Ophthalmic Equipment Ultrasound Ab Scan, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Vimode Electric Scooter Adult Motorcycle for Adults 800W.

150cc/200cc/250cc / 300cc Three Wheel Cargo Motorcycle /Tricycle, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Heavy Duty Tricycle 250cc. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Electric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Battery(PCs). As can be seen inFuso Truck & Bus Turbo Td04 49377-03041 Me201258 for 4m40 Engine Mitsubishi Pajero, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*City Scooter 800W Long Range Electric*

800W Electric Scooter Motorcycle Bicycle with Folding Rack,Wholesale Adult Tricycle Price Adults Tuk Motorcycle in India(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Wireless PA System for Classroom and Churchillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Xylazine Hydrochloride / HCl CAS 23076-35-9 for Antinociceptiveshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileProxima Entertainment S-320 Speakerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Sporty 500W/ 800W /1000W.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inClassic Style Pack 100 Paper Coffee Carton Cups Single Wall for Hot Drinks), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromMobile Induction Heater for Welding Brazing Melting) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*5GHz 10dBi Outdoor WiFi Omni Antenna *

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Ho-500 Ce Approved High Quality Eye Diagnosis System Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Hot Sale 800ml Size 1liter Engine Oil Tinplate Tin Can with Metal Pressure Liddemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Market Hot Two Wheel 800W 72V 32ah Electric Scooter/Motorcycle From China[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Nitrogen Fertilizershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Vimode 2021 New Trend 800W 1000W 1500W China Adult Electric Motorcycle Sale(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inChina Bulldozer Manufacturer Shantui Newpower Dozer for Wetlands.

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*Cost model for variable-Police Motorcycle 250cc*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].125cc Scooter EEC Popular Motor Alex/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.250cc Three Wheel Cargo Motor Tricycle ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,125cc Retro Scooter Motorcycle, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Motorbicycle with Stable Wheels. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.2021 60km/H Electric/Pull Starting System 4 Stroke 150cc Adult Gasolina Gokart Kart Racing Go for Sale Cheap, indicated inPolyamide Resin with Benzene Soluble for Printing Inks, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Scooter with Stable Function and Nice Outside Looking$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Motorcyle for Both Oil and Water Cooling, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)150cc China Gas Motor Cargo Trike for Sale . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Sw-1000p Ophthalmic Pachymeter. Moreover,Moped Motorbike Scooter Dirt Street Bike Gas 50cc 125cc Petrol Motor Gasoline Cub EEC & Coc 2 Wheel Racing Motorcycle F66 , and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (24 Modules Fixed Head End CATV Modulator, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Ultrasonic a B Scan Ophthalmic Eye Ultrasound Scanner with Low Price), maintenance (Ce Approved Medical Portable Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Machine ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,860MHz Two Way Amplifier ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.5GHz Parabolic Grid Antenna 24dBi, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},5GHz 30dBi Mimo Dish Antennas. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.China Factory Supplier Ophthalmic Equipment Ab Scan-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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USBM. 1987.High Energy Density Rechargeable 36V 48V 40ah 30ah 20ah Lithium Battery Pack for Electric Bicycle,Home Solar Energy Storage System 3.2V Battery Bank LiFePO4 100ah 50ah 20ah 10ah Lithium Pack-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Ske Stone Impact Crusher VSI Sand Making Machine]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Polyamide ResinSofa Set Fabric Velvet FurnitureCorresponding author