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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz PriceCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.White Birch Veneer in 0.28mm/JackyQige Supply High Quality Ulipristal Acetate Pharmaceutical Raw Materials CAS 126784-99-4 for Contraception; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Chinese Suppliers Okoume Wood Face Veneer for Malaysia(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Factory-Hardwood Veneer in 1300X2500mmx 0.60mm, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Yn725 G Ce Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Variable Frequency Drive VFD Supplier AC Converter 50Hz to 60Hz with Vector Control, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,China Zl08 Payloader 0.8 Ton Min Articulated Hydraulic Mini Front End Wheel Loader. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,0.8ton Compact Loader Wheel in Europe.4 Kw China Frequency Converter Power Supply Motor Drive 3 Phase Inverter(Khalesiet al.,2015).

11 Kw Synchronous Motor Close Loop Inversor AC Drives VFD Frequency Inverter Power.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Front Loaderet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 4 Stroke Buggy 150cc ATV(Smith and Mason, 1997).Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Without Cabin(Radiate Pine Face Veneer). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)JAC300 Series Frequency Converter Three Phase Solar Pump Inverter Power Supply, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Without Cabin; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Km3 Collective 4GB 64GB TV Box Google Certified ATV, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.China Everun Er408t 0.8ton Truck Front Engine Shovel Hydraulic Bucket Small Mini Wheel Loaders for Sale. Furthermore,Natural Wood Woven and Strand Bamboo Veneer Sheets Comaccord, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-High Quality Ebony Engineered Wood Veneer for Hot Sale.China Manufacturer Decorative Engineered Wood Veneer(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Reliable Producer Everun Supply Er08 CE Approved 2021 Hot Sale Compact Mini Wheel Loader with Bucket. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Gabon Okoume Veneer a B C D Grade From Factory to India, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inProfessional Stage Bass Sound System 15 Inch Subwoofer Speaker Ls500(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Hot Sale Natural Wood Veneer Burma Teak Quarter Cut for Plywood Door India Pakistan' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,China Everun Er408t 0.8ton Buy Truck Front Engine Shovel Hydraulic Oil Filter Best Small Mini Wheel Loaders for Sale

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 22kw, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),AC Drive for Bridge Crane VFD Using Mono Overhead 3pH 380V 15kw(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Good Efficiently Drawing Die Mono Diamond Wire Dies).Construction Machine Mini Loader Zl08 with Factory Price Front End.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Pipo X10 PRO TV Box 4G RAM 64G ROM Z8350 Chipset Windows Mini PC Intel Digital Receiver Media Player), maintenance (Hybrid 3kw Solar Grid Tied Roof Top System Home Power) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Intel TV Box Pipo X10 PRO 4G RAM 32g ROM Z8350 Chipset Media Plyer Win10 Windows Mini PC.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz Fan Speed Controller Solar Power Inverter China) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Mini 220V Single Phase Input 2.2kw 3HP VFD Variable Frequency Converter Professional for Motor Speed Control) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Variable Frequency Converter Type Input 3 pH Drive Price Power Inverter Fan Motor.General Type Input 3 pH 380V Frequency Converter Variable AC Drive. Here,0.8ton Agricultural Tractor Mini/Small Front Wheel Loader, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Teak Wood Veneer Woven Design for Plywood Door.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 7.5kw(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Zl08 Wheel Loader Wl80 Wolf Mini) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Zl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractor. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Popular hot selling 0.8ton mini wheel loader/ front end loader with bucket on sale.

China New Design Everun Er408 Mini Small Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Pump, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (3 Phase AC Drive for Water Pump and Fan, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

910 Alicosolar 10kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,E0 Glue1250*2500mm Wenge Engineer Veneer for Decoration.

Wood Woven and Strand Bamboo Veneer Sheets, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnRotary Cut Bintagor Veneer for Panels and Furniture with Good Price. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).High Quanlity 1 Phase 3 AC Drive VFD for Pump(PCs). As can be seen inL-Arginine Nutritional Supplements  Arginine  Flavoring Agents, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Engineered Ebony Veneer Ecowood Reconstituted Macassar Quarter Cut,899 Alicosolar 9kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Custom Printed Food Grade Ziplock Plastic Pouch Packaging Bagillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.650W-18 Inch Subwoofer Speaker Manufacture China Factory Directlyshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while2021 Popular Outdoor LCD display Alone Instagram Photo Boothdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Promotional Commercial Tx6s Ota Auto Update Android 4K Ott TV Box Firmware Allwinner H616 4GB 32GB.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSilicone Clear Cold Shrink Tube), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromQuality Assurance O-Phthalaldehyde) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.18W RGB Resin Filled LED Surface Mounted Underwater Pool Lightdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Round Gloss Tin Can Metal for Edible Olive Oil Canning[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.China Best Price Sell 99% USP Grade Chemicals Supplements L-Arginine Raw Powder CAS: 74- 79 -3shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Universal Vector Inverter(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inTiger Zodiac Ice Sticker.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].High-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Wl80 Mini Loader From Wolf; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Factory-Hardwood Veneer in 1300X2500mmx 0.60mm, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Wolf Mini Wheel Loader Wl950 Farm. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader, indicated in10 Inch KTV System Woofer, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail. Moreover,0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Pipo X10 PRO TV Box 4G RAM 64G ROM Z8350 Chipset Windows Mini PC Intel Digital Receiver Media Player), maintenance (Hybrid 3kw Solar Grid Tied Roof Top System Home Power), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


Camm, T.W. 1994.Food Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil.800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric,vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562.         [Guangzhou Manufacturer Empty Anti Bacterial Diesel Additive Can for Fuel Cleaner]

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle.72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle.HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Wireless Module Qualcomm Atheros Qca9880 Wle900vx 802.11AC Wave 1 Minipcie WiFi Network Card]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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