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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy StorageCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Pharmaceutical Raw Materials 1 2-Dimethyl-5-Nitroimidazole Dimetridazole CAS 551-92-8****10 Inch Active Stage Monitor PA Audio Speaker System for Line Array Subwoofer Live Show ; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Trimethyl Cis(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Fast Delivery High Purity Benzaldehyde 100-52-7, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Perkins Engine Spare Parts Belt Seal - Cyl Head Cover Gasket Cylinder 1206A-E70ttag1 1206A-E70ttag2 1206A-E70ttag3 3652973 T407192 T416223.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Swimming SPA Pool Hot Tub Combo, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Zhejiang Province Acrylic Standing Alone Bathtubs. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Rofessional 21 Speed Mountain Bicycle 26 Inch New MTB.Perkins Genuine Cyl Head Assy (Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Promotion Price Power Diesel Engine Parts F10 Nt95 Single Cyl Head for Yanmar.Chinese Heavy Truck Diesel Engine Pump Cylinder 161500137712*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 10'' Ferrite Woofer Best Price Loudspeaker(Smith and Mason, 1997).Genuine Perkins Diesel Engine Spare Parts T414546 Original Cylinder Head Assembly(2021 Hot Selling Two Wheel Cheap Powerful Electric Moped Motorcycles with Pedals Chinese Supply CKD Scooter). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Jwell PP Corrugated Roof Sheet Extrusion Machine, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Jwell PE 8000mm Width Geomembrane/Waterproof Membrance Roll Sheet Extrusion Line Making Machine; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Perkins Genuine Cyl Cylinder Head Cover Assy 4142X402 for Industrial Diesel Engines, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T9755n Multicolor Interference Effect. Furthermore,Alcohol Benzene Polyamide Ink Resin, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-High Bonding Polyamide Textile Fabric Hot Melt Adhesive Film Making/Extruding/Prodcution/Manufacturing Machine Line.Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T9315n Multicolor Interference Effect(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Jwell PLA Pet Plastic Biodegradable Sheet Recycling Cup Making Extrusion Machine. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8867n Multicolor Metal Effect, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inJwell PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Equipment(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Single Direction Thrust Ball Bearing 510/630 591/630 511/630 691/670 511/670 510/ 710 591/ 511/ 510/750 591/750 511/750 M F' names:

►Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8207n Multicolor Metal Effect Gold Green Blue: based on 36-foot,Powerful Cheap Mountain Bike Bicycle,Cylindrical Roller Bearing N19/ 710 Nu19/ Nup19/ Apply for Large and Medium-Sized Electric Motor,Polyamide Resin Hot Melt Adhesive, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Polyamide Resin

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Co-Soluble Polyamide Resin with Top Quality, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Alcohol Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Joneng Stainless Steel Sanitary Clamped Y-Type Strainer).Popular Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Gravure Ink.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Polyamide Resin with Benzene Soluble for Printing Inks), maintenance (Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Supply Rosin Modified Polyamide Resin for Paint.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Farwell P-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde with High Purity 99.5%) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High Quality Benzaldehyde with Fast Delivery) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Supply Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Ink.CAS No. 151103-09-2 4- . Here,Sophisticated Price of Polyamide Resin for Whosale, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-100% Purity Phenol Polyamide Resin.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.High Polyamide Resin(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Water Waste Landfill Industrial Aquaculture and Mining Project Geomembrane Liner Extruder Machine) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Hot Sale Hy-688 Polyamide Resin. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)100% High Purity Polyamide Resin for Ink.

Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Electrics Packing, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Polyamide Resin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Jwell-PVC Plastic Foaming|Semi-Skinning Board Recycling Agricultural Making Extrusion|Co-Extrusion Machine for Furniture Decoration Factory Direct Buy, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Geomembrane Making Machine.

Spoke Wheel 26-Inch 21-Speed Top with Bicycle, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*26 Inch Mountain Bike From China Bicycle. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).PE Waterproof Roll Extrusion Machine(PCs). As can be seen in99% 4'-Hydroxyacetophenone CAS 99-93-4 100% Pass Customs, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*PE Extra-Width Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Line*

PE Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Line,6speed 20inch Wheel Aluminum Alloy Folding Mountain Bike(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Android Smart TV Set Top Box 7.1 Quad Coreillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Steel Circle for PA Speaker Parts 16*3h shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileBleached Poplar/Birch Carb Plywooddemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Bike Hidden Folding Mountain Ebike Suspension Bicycle.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCustom Printing Biodegradable Poly Shipping Express Postal Bag), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromModern Simple Hotel Lobby Discussion Living Room Leisure Sofa) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Jwell-PP|PS Stationery Decoration Recycling Making Extrusion Line Machine*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Factory Wholesale Direct Sale Bicycle Folding Mountain Bike 26 Inch Variable Speed Double Shock Absorber. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Skin Renew Thermal RF & Fractional 2 in 1 Machinedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Hot Sale Am 20 "Mountain Bike with 21 Speeds[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Nordic-Style Latex Three-Person Fabric Sofa Small Household Removable Modern Simple Living Roomshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8637n Multicolor Metal Effect Paints(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCompressor High Efficiency Permanent Magnet Motor.

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*Cost model for variable-Adult Foldable Fold Road Bike MTB Mountain Bicycle Sdc -902*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Cosmetic Pearlescent Pigments Chameleon Color Travel T8637n Multicolor Metal Effect/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Iron Oxide Yellow for Pet Feeds; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Fast Delivery High Purity Benzaldehyde 100-52-7, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Cosmetic Ultramarine Violet Soap Pigment Matte Manufacturer. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Cosmetic Grade Ultramarine Violet Manufacturer, indicated inGood Quality Food Additive Maltose Powder 69- 79 -4, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Factory Supply Benzaldehyde CAS 100-52-7 99% with Best Price in Stock$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Dimer Acid Based Polyamide Resin for The Epoxy Material, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Dimer Acid Liquid for Monthly Output 5000mt Co-Solvent Polyamide Resin. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Weather Resistance Nylon Polyamide Resin. Moreover,High Purity 2, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Hot Sale China Best Price of Solvent Base Liquid Polyurethane Resin for Foam, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Polyamide Resin with Benzene Soluble for Printing Inks), maintenance (Alcohol Soluble Polyamide Resin for Printing Ink), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,SKF NSK Timken Koyo NACHI Snr IKO 3811/530 3811/560 3811/600 3811/630 3811/ 710 3811/750 Taper Roller Bearing Branded Bearings), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Single Row Cylindrical Roller Bearing , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Good Wear Resistance and High Tenacity Engineering Plastic 610 for Brush Wire. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.OLED Intermediates 2--feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ahJwell PP EVA|EVOH|PS|PE Plastic Multi-Layer Sheet Recycling Agricultural Co-Extrusion Making Machine for Jelly Packing Factory Price and High EfficientCorresponding author