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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Kraft Paper &Plastic Foil Laminated Mylar Food Packaging ContainerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale****Titan Chargeuses Cheap Small Log China Mini Digger Loader with European Quick Hitch; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Electric Motorcycle (SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Electric Motorcycle , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Electric Motorcycle.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Electric Motorcycle , sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,750ml Metal Tin Can Container for Chili Oil Canning. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Hot Sale Food Packaging Tin Can for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids.Metal Engine Oil Can Recycling Lubricant Tin Packaging Container(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

2L Galvanized Tin Cans for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids.Electric Motorcycles *et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 2021 Hot Sale Light Source Be Glued IP68 LED Underwater for Swimming Pool(Smith and Mason, 1997).Made in China Solar System 10kw 20kw 30kw 40kw 50kw Energy for Industry(Karaoke Wireless Portable Wooden Bluetooth PA Speaker). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).800W Aluminium Alloy Wheel Hubs Sport Electric Motorcycle; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Zl08 Chargeuse Wheel Loader, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Professional Manufacturer Everun Er08 CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader. Furthermore,500W EEC Electric scooter, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Electric Motorcycle .Solar Electric Motorcycle(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Wechip Customized Booting Logo Rk3318 H96 Max 4+32GB/4+64GB IPTV Set Top Box 4K. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (OEM 1500W EEC Electric Scooter , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inZl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;New Arrival 4K Smart S905X2 TV Box 4+64GB X96 Mini' names:

►0.25mm Natural Wood Face Veneer: based on 36-foot,2L Empty Tin Container for Engine Oil Lubricant,High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz,Electric Motorcycle , and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,EEC Electric Scooter

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter , blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Factory Produce Natural Face Veneer Size 1220X1830X0.25mm(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (High Quality Steelwork Fabrications and Fast Build Frame Structure with Colums/Truss/Rafter).Electric Motorcycle/Scooter/Bike .

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (800W EEC Electric Motorcycle), maintenance (No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,1 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/One Scooter.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Three Phase 380V Small Frequency Converter) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Hot Sale High Performance Vector Frequency Converter 380V 45/55kw.Single/Three Phase 220V 380V Vector Control Frequency Converter. Here,Factory-Enginneered Veneer Ash in 0.30mm, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Small Frequency Inverter 380V 50/60Hz.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter 1.5kw(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-1.2mm White Poplar Veneer From Factory for Exporting) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Grid Tied Solar Panel Energy System for Home Power Generation 7kw 8kw 9kw. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Eucalyptus Core or Birch for Veneer with Grade AA.

Wholesale 1.5 mm Natural Bamboo Skateboard Veneer with Best Price, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Popular 800W Power Electric Scooter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}1250X2500mm Rotary Cut Okoume Veneer Cheap Prices, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Factory Price Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader.

2862 Easy Installation 5kw 6kw 8kw 10kw 12kw on Grid Solar System, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Eougem CE 1.0 Ton Hydraulic Mini Radlader Zl08. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Wolf 0.8t 800kg Mini Loader with Euro 3 Engine(PCs). As can be seen inPowersoft Professional Line Array Active Subwoofer Column System DSP PRO Audio Speaker PA Ml15SA, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*500- 800W 48V 20ah OEM manufacturers Electric Scooter*

800W Brushless Adult Electric Scooter,2021 New Type Fashionable Chinese Supplier Brushless Max Speed 35km/H 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ahillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.20MHz Skin Rejuvenation Vacuum RF Lifting Machineshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileMars Solar 350W 360W Panel Complete Power System 30kw Grid Tied Inverter with WiFi for Commercial Usedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Best Chinese Big Wheel Electric Motorcycle Racing Bike Adult Bicycle.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inThin Moisture Indicator Cotton Disposable Baby Diapers Bale Wholesale Supplier in China), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromAC to Drive 380V Frequency Inverter 4kw) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.1L Beer Can. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.1220*2440*18mm Birch Plywood with Carb P2 Standard Qualitydemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,High Quality Electric Scooter Factory[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 132s1320shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Cute Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Pedals 60V800W14ah Lithium Battery for Adults(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inStuffed Soft Toy Plush Animal Lie Prone Posture Dog.

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*Cost model for variable-1L Panit Can*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].1L and 5L Can for Antifreezing Liquid/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.2021 Fashionable High Quality with Lithium Battery Electric Scooters EEC Vespa Citycoco Newest Model Motorcycle; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Electric Motorcycle , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Pump Inverter Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers AC Supplier. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Cheap Smart Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W20ah with Customer Foot Pedal, indicated inBintangor Okoume Pencil Ceder Commercial Plywood for Furniture and Decoration, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Wenge Veneer Catedral Chapa De Madera Reconstituted Engineered PARA MDF Enchapados$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.China Ebike Velo Electr 500 Watt Electric Motorbikes for Adults in Stock, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Vector Air Compressor Power Transformer. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive. Moreover,MPPT Function Variable Frequency Drive Motor Controller Power Supply Generator, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (0.75kw-11kw Three Phase 380V Frequency Inverter VFD, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (800W EEC Electric Motorcycle), maintenance (No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,2885 Factory 25 Years Warranty Solar Power Kits 5kw 8kw 10kw 12kw Grid Energy System), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.2876 10kw Home Used Solar Power System on Grid Roof, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},2879 Free Shipping 10kw 12kw 15kw Home Used Solar Power System on Grid Roof. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.AAA Grade 0.9mm Poplar Core/Veneer for Plywood/Furniture-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Set Top Box T95q S905X2 4G 32g Android 9.0 HD TV Kodi Quad Core.*Hot Popular Fast Shipping H. 265 Standars Czech Republic Channels Internet TV Box.*Junuo China Factory Mini Plastic E Digital Internet TV Set Top Box DVB T2 for Russia, Montreal. 265 pp. [Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.5 Litre Extra Olive Oil Tin Can .*DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 2.2kw.*Junuo China Factory Mini Plastic E Digital Internet TV Set Top Box DVB T2 for Russia, Montreal. 319 pp. [Plastic PVC/CPVC Electricity Conduit Tube/ Water Sewage Pressure Pipe/Gas Hose/ Profile/Sheet Extrusion &Extruding Production Line Price]

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Popular 800W Power Electric Scooter, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Good Quality Pine Wood Core Block Board with Okume Film.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Best Quality BMK Glycidate Raw Materials Fororganic Intermediates Bulk Price]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Factory Nitrogen Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate 20.5%N Steel Grade for AgricultureDual 10 " Outdoor Wooden PA System Bluetooth Trolley Smart SpeakerCorresponding author