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## Prominence Crystal Award Trophy for Appreciation Gifts

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**11kw Grid Tied Solar Energy System Industrial Power SupplyCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer****Safety Shape Bag /Food Packaging Contact Plastic Container for Resealable; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD.Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket.1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Original Quality Motorcycle Parts Spark Plug Cap for Gy6 125(Smith and Mason, 1997).800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle(Customized Label Plastic White Black Kraft Paper Pouch One Way Valve Roasted Bean Flat Bottom Coffee Bag Food Packaging Rice Pet Container). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles. Furthermore,10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike.Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in12inches PA Speaker Audio Component(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz' names:

►Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can: based on 36-foot,2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System,Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil,866 5kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),800W Electric Scooter (CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Round Stainless Steel Flush Mounting Floor Boxes/Junction Box/Eletrical Outlet).Good-Sealing Square Tin Can Engine Oil with Metal Lid.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood), maintenance (Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Natural Wood Bintangor Face Veneer for Door and Furniture.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Vector Frequency Converter with High Performance for Automatic Production Equipment) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz.Electric Motorcycle . Here,High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Electric Motorcycle (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Electric Motorcycle ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Electric Motorcycle. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Electric Motorcycle .

750ml Metal Tin Can Container for Chili Oil Canning, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Hot Sale Food Packaging Tin Can for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Metal Engine Oil Can Recycling Lubricant Tin Packaging Container, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,2L Galvanized Tin Cans for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids.

Electric Motorcycles , analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Made in China Solar System 10kw 20kw 30kw 40kw 50kw Energy for Industry. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader(PCs). As can be seen in45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}2021 Fashion Electric Mtorcycle 2000W Motor China

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*800W Aluminium Alloy Wheel Hubs Sport Electric Motorcycle*

Zl08 Chargeuse Wheel Loader,Professional Manufacturer Everun Er08 CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Self-Powered Subwoofer Bass Active Speaker Single 15inch Multi-Functions Occasions 600W Vs15s20illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Lithium Battery 200ah LiFePO4 Pack 3kwhshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileEverun CE Approved 0.8 Ton Front End Loaderdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,500W EEC Electric scooter.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inRoyal Dark Blue Marble Slab in Luxurious Interiors), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from2021 Wuxi Best Selling New Type Racing Mobility Adults 2 Wheels Electric Motorcycles E Motos CKD Scooters) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

Adult Electric Motorcycle/Electric Bike/E-Bike W Waterproof with Double Disc Brakes/2 Wheel Scooter

**Results and discussion**

*Electric Motorcycle *

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Solar Electric Motorcycle. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.China Best Price Sell 99% USP Grade Chemicals Supplements L-Arginine Raw Powder CAS: 74- 79 -3demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Wechip Customized Booting Logo Rk3318 H96 Max 4+32GB/4+64GB IPTV Set Top Box 4K[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Capshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.OEM 1500W EEC Electric Scooter (a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHuaxin Hs-Vt Type 5ton 3meter Black Chain Hoist.

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*Cost model for variable-New Arrival 4K Smart S905X2 TV Box 4+64GB X96 Mini*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].0.25mm Natural Wood Face Veneer/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.2L Empty Tin Container for Engine Oil Lubricant; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Electric Motorcycle , indicated in2.4- 5GHz Omni Antenna , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

EEC Electric Scooter $394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Factory Produce Natural Face Veneer Size 1220X1830X0.25mm. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Electric Motorcycle/Scooter/Bike . Moreover,800W EEC Electric Motorcycle, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood), maintenance (Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,1 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/One Scooter), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Three Phase 380V Small Frequency Converter. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Hot Sale High Performance Vector Frequency Converter 380V 45/55kw-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Antique Design Rustic Style Furniture Nature Oak and Dark Grey Linen Shakable Leisure Sofa Chair12" Line Array Loud Speaker Sound System Professional PACorresponding author