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## Acrylic Modern Small Freestanding Soaking Deep Baby Tub 100cm

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**PA System Passive ABS 100V 8ohm 10W Wall Mount Horn Speaker Waterproof for Outdoor UseCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Skyzon® Cationic Violet 3R/Cationic Dyes/Cloth Dye****2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Disperse Dyestuff Violet S3rl 200% C. I. 63(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pigment Violet 1 or Fast Rose Toner/Fast Lake, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Disperse Dyestuff Violet 200% P-CF for Textile.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Disperse Red/Blue/Orange/ Violet /Black, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textile. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Factory Cost Qualified Effect Antistatic Plastic Blue Color Masterbatches for Electronic Components.Plastic Products Pellets Raw Granulesanti-Static Material Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Super Popular Endless Swimming Pool with Jacuzzi SPA for Market.Massage Bathtub*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Good Price CE 500W Bicicletas Electricas 48V Electric Motorcycle 800W for Adult(Smith and Mason, 1997).PA Filler Masterbatch for Injection Moulding(PA12 Plastic Granule for Injection Molding Polyamide 12 Resin Nylon). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Swedish Soaking Bath Tubs Lowes Plastic Adult Freestanding Bathtub, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Laswim Endless Pool/Counter Flow Pool; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Double Slipper Two Upper End Freestanding Soaking New Bath Tub, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Jacuzzi Massage Endless Swimming Pool Swim SPA. Furthermore,2021 Popular Great Large 5.95 Meter Swimming Pool Laswim Bathtub Hot Tub SPA, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-PP Corrugated Roofing Sheet Extrusion Machine.Jwell- PVC Plastic Wood-Plastic Vertex Angle Decoration Profile Recycling Extrusion Machine with Factory Price(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Jwell - Thermoplastic Polyurethane Film Extrusion Machine. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Jwell - TPU Roll Car Paint Protection Matt Cast Film Machine, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inVrx932la Dual Voice Coil Line Array Speaker Box(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Jwell - High Performance Shoes PEVA Hotmelt TPU Film Production Line' names:

►Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla150p249: based on 36-foot,Polythene Plastic Sheet Making Machine,Jwell-Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Clothing Packing with High Efficient,High Quality Cow Poultry House Farm/ Greenhouse Ventilation Fan Made in China, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,1HP/2HP/3HP/4HP/5HP Shrimp Pond Fish Farm Aerator Air Ring Blower

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160p3125q, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Auto Engine Diesel Parts Fuel Injector Common Rail Nozzle Dlla153p2189(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (International Certification of Durable Medical OEM Available Oxygen Generator).Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p274), maintenance (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p273.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154p332) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154pn006) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.High Quality Nickel Alloy Monel 400 .Tsp Trisodium Phosphate/ CAS No.: 7758- 79 -4/Anhydrous/Na3po4. Here,Disperse Violet 63, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Skycron® Disperse Violet 1/2R 100% Fabric Dye for Polyester.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Disperse Red 11 or Brill Pink 4bn(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-94% Sodium Tripolyphosphate STPP CAS No: 7758- 79 -4) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Skycron® Disperse Violet 63/RL 200% Color Dye For Clothes. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Flame Retardant Ammonium Polyphosphate .

Pigment Violet 23 Liquid, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Asapp-II Ammonium Polyphosphate for Intumescent Paints , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Water Treatment Softener Dibasic Sodium Phosphate 97% Powder CAS No.: 7558- 79 -4, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Indissolvable Ammonium Polyphosphate CAS No. 68333- 79 -9.

Sodium Phosphate Dibasic CAS No 7558- 79 -4, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Detergent Grade Sodium Tripolyphosphate 94% CAS No: 7758- 79 -4. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Boring Machine Tools Micro Head F1type CNC Heads Set(PCs). As can be seen inGy6 150cc Gasoline Scooter, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Straight Shank Collets C16 C20 C25 C32 Collet Chuck for Power Milling*

High Precision Milling Bt30 Tool Holder Collet Chuck for Lathe Machine,94% Sodium Tripolyphosphate STPP CAS No: 7758- 79 -4(CSFM) is presented here as an example.3-Amino-4-Pyrazolecarboxamide Hemisulfate Salt CAS No 27511- 79 -1illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Printed Pet Dog Food Packaging Plastic Bag with Resealable Zipper Stand upshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while5GHz 25dBi Dual Pol Enclosure Antennademonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Supply Ammonium Polyphosphate APP .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inStainless Steel Plastic Handle Food Processing Welded Butterfly Valve), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromTws True Wireless Headphone Earbud Bluetooth 5.0 New Design) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Sdc Shrink Collet Chuck Toolholders for CNC Machine Part*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Nickel Based Alloy W. Nr 2.4819 Hastelloy C276 Uns N10276 High Temperature Steel Round Flat Bar. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Novel Pea Supplements Eria Jarensis Extract Palmitoylethanolamide Raw Powder USA Stock CAS: 10275-21-5demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,UNS NO2200 Nickel Plate[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.5GHz 20dBi Panel WiFi Antennashows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Machine Tools 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inMedical Oxygen Purity Standard 5 Liter Concentrator with 5-Way Divider.

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*Cost model for variable-Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla148p591*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Machine Tools High Precision 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Diesel Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160pn141; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pigment Violet 1 or Fast Rose Toner/Fast Lake, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Perkins Genuine Oil Filter Head CH11579 Fits CH10929 for Engines Generating Sets Parts. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel System SD265 Nozzle, indicated in17 Inch Machined Aftermarket Alloy Wheel , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Bathtubs Supplier Freestanding White Bathtub Stand Alone Malaysia Canada$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Vat Violet 13, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Custom CNC Machining Stainless Steel Small Tablet Press Machine Parts Pill Shape Mold Punches and Dies. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Solvent Violet 9 . Moreover,CAS 81-48-1 Solvent Violet 13 for Dyestuff Powder, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Inconel X-750 Forged/Forging Round Bars , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p274), maintenance (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Factory Price Hot Selling Massage Swimming Pool SPA), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Laswim Swim SPA Endless Swimming Pool Whirlpool Bathtub, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Jwell- PVC|PP|PE|PC|ABS Small Profile Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Machine for Building Industry Home and Office Decoration. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.HDPE Plastic Geomembrane Sheet Making Extrusion Machine-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Asapp-II Ammonium Polyphosphate for Intumescent Paints , A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Jwell PP Corrugated Roof Sheet Extrusion Machine.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Yellow HDPE Masterbatch]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

0.25mm Natural Wood Face VeneerAC Variable Frequency Drive Single PhaseCorresponding author