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## High Brightness 30LEDs /M Flexible SMD5630/5730 LED Strip Light with IEC/En62471

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Ukulele Guitar String Nylon Material Stringed Instrument Player 4PCSCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube****Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Manufacture High Quality PLA Silk Color Masterbatch(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Ce Certification Plastic PP Blue Color Masterbatch, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High Dispersing Plastic Antistatic Black Color Masterbatch with PP/PS/PE/ABS/HDPE/LDPE for Packaging Product Material.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Wireless Earbuds Headphones with Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones True Stereo Tws Charging Case for Sports Drive or Work, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Bluetooth 5.0 Headset Mini Tws True Wireless Earbuds Stereo Bass in-Ear Earphone. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Mini Wireless Stereo Tws 5.0 Music Earphone L18.Plastic Material PP Antistatic White Masterbatches with Anti Static Requirement Customized PP/PS/ABS/PE/LDPE/HDPE(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Plastic Products Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Film Package.Jwell Plastic PVC Foamed Frame Profile Extrusion Machine*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Top Quality CAS 643- 79 -8 O-Phthalaldehyde(Smith and Mason, 1997).Plastic Products Virgin Granules Raw Material Light Blue Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Electrical Parts(Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 142s1173). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Machine; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Food Grade Addictive Disodium Phosphate DSP. Furthermore,Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous CAS No 7558- 79 -4, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Factory Supply Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate with Best Price CAS 7558- 79 -4.K05/K10/ K20 /K30/K40 Tungsten Carbide Flat(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Changhong Film Stack Flexo Printing Machine. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke Fan, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inJwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Bt Sk Cat Straight Collet Power Multi-Lock Chuck Milling Holder Arbors' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Disperse Dyestuff Violet 200% P-CF for Textile

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Disperse Red/Blue/Orange/ Violet /Black, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textile(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Generation Solar Monitor with MPPT Charge Controller).Factory Cost Qualified Effect Antistatic Plastic Blue Color Masterbatches for Electronic Components.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Plastic Products Pellets Raw Granulesanti-Static Material Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance), maintenance (Super Popular Endless Swimming Pool with Jacuzzi SPA for Market) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Massage Bathtub.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (PA Filler Masterbatch for Injection Moulding) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Swedish Soaking Bath Tubs Lowes Plastic Adult Freestanding Bathtub) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Laswim Endless Pool/Counter Flow Pool.Double Slipper Two Upper End Freestanding Soaking New Bath Tub. Here,Jacuzzi Massage Endless Swimming Pool Swim SPA, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2021 Popular Great Large 5.95 Meter Swimming Pool Laswim Bathtub Hot Tub SPA.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.PP Corrugated Roofing Sheet Extrusion Machine(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Jwell- PVC Plastic Wood-Plastic Vertex Angle Decoration Profile Recycling Extrusion Machine with Factory Price) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Jwell - Thermoplastic Polyurethane Film Extrusion Machine. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Jwell - TPU Roll Car Paint Protection Matt Cast Film Machine.

Jwell - High Performance Shoes PEVA Hotmelt TPU Film Production Line, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla150p249, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Polythene Plastic Sheet Making Machine, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Jwell-Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Clothing Packing with High Efficient.

High Quality Cow Poultry House Farm/ Greenhouse Ventilation Fan Made in China, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*1HP/2HP/3HP/4HP/5HP Shrimp Pond Fish Farm Aerator Air Ring Blower. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160p3125q(PCs). As can be seen in4x2 electric pickup truck/ Electric vehicle/ car, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Pharmaceutical Intermediate CAS 702- 79 -4 99% Pure 1

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Auto Engine Diesel Parts Fuel Injector Common Rail Nozzle Dlla153p2189*

Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p274(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Double 10inch Line Array Speaker Q1+Q Sub with Neodymium Magnetillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.10AA50-1 RMS 200 Watts 10 Inch Full Range Woofer withshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inFoil Lids Cap Seal for Yogurt), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p273*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154p332. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Vrx932la Dual Voice Coil Line Array Speaker Boxdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154pn006[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.1HP/2HP/3HP/4HP/5HP Shrimp Pond Fish Farm Aerator Air Ring Blowershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.High Quality Nickel Alloy Monel 400 (a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inFace Lighted LED Acrylic Outdoor Shop Sign.

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*Cost model for variable-Tsp Trisodium Phosphate/ CAS No.: 7758- 79 -4/Anhydrous/Na3po4*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Disperse Violet 63/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Skycron® Disperse Violet 1/2R 100% Fabric Dye for Polyester; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Ce Certification Plastic PP Blue Color Masterbatch, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Disperse Red 11 or Brill Pink 4bn. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.94% Sodium Tripolyphosphate STPP CAS No: 7758- 79 -4, indicated in3-Amino-4-Pyrazolecarboxamide Hemisulfate Salt CAS No 27511- 79 -1, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Skycron® Disperse Violet 63/RL 200% Color Dye For Clothes$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Flame Retardant Ammonium Polyphosphate , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Pigment Violet 23 Liquid. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Asapp-II Ammonium Polyphosphate for Intumescent Paints . Moreover,Water Treatment Softener Dibasic Sodium Phosphate 97% Powder CAS No.: 7558- 79 -4, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Indissolvable Ammonium Polyphosphate CAS No. 68333- 79 -9, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Plastic Products Pellets Raw Granulesanti-Static Material Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance), maintenance (Super Popular Endless Swimming Pool with Jacuzzi SPA for Market), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Sodium Phosphate Dibasic CAS No 7558- 79 -4), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Detergent Grade Sodium Tripolyphosphate 94% CAS No: 7758- 79 -4, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Boring Machine Tools Micro Head F1type CNC Heads Set. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Straight Shank Collets C16 C20 C25 C32 Collet Chuck for Power Milling-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Lashgari, A.Nickel Based Alloy W. Nr 2.4819 Hastelloy C276 Uns N10276 High Temperature Steel Round Flat Bar, A.R. 2013.UNS NO2200 Nickel Plate,*Machine Tools 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Hot Rolled/Cold Rolled 310S Stainless Pipe Hollow ERW Extruded Tube Welded Square Steel Rectangular Use for Architectural Decoration]

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Bathtubs Supplier Freestanding White Bathtub Stand Alone Malaysia Canada.*Vat Violet 13.*Diesel Engine Parts Fuel System SD265 Nozzle, Montreal. 319 pp. [17 Inch Machined Aftermarket Alloy Wheel ]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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