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## Soybean Broadband Fungicide Pyraclostrobin

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal PailCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter****Plastic Sheet Machine PC Polycarbonate Solid; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Round Gloss Tin Can Metal for Edible Olive Oil Canning(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Universal Vector Inverter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Frequency Inverter 220V 50/60Hz 60HP Three Phases Acdrive.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

High-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Wl80 Mini Loader From Wolf. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Wolf Mini Wheel Loader Wl950 Farm.Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging.Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 1L Tin Can for Oil(Smith and Mason, 1997).5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover(Wireless Module Qualcomm Atheros Qca9880 Wle900vx 802.11AC Wave 1 Minipcie WiFi Network Card). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin. Furthermore,Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box.New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Food Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inChinese Famous Brand Canmax Wheel Loader Cm908 Using Hydraulic Pump Machinery Can Be Used in Farms(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Rectangular Glue Tin Can Empty Clear Paint' names:

►Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap: based on 36-foot,Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers,800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light,Citycoco Electric Motorcycle E6 Cheap OEM E Bike, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Euro5, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Retro Scooters(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Two Component Polyurethane Foaming Spray Guns).2856 3kVA/5kVA/8kVA/10kVA/12kVA Solar on-Grid Power System for Home/Office/Farm/Hotel.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0), maintenance (Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer.Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container. Here,Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction.

CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container.

Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles(PCs). As can be seen inEuro5, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Police Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320cc

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can*

500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike,Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Polyethylene Green Color Masterbatchillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabinshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileChinese Factory Tin Can with Brush for Glue and Sealants Adgesivesdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inLovely Cartoon Toy Customized Soft Kids Stuffed Plush Character Doll), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromIndustrial Dust Collector Ash Separator Precipitators Dirt Catcher Electrostatic Precipitator) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Frequency Converter for Small Power Motors 3pH 380V 50/60Hz. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Popular 800W Power Electric Scooterdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Customized Hot Stamping Printed Bags with Your Own Logo or Design Food Packaging Airtight Pouches Aluminum Foil Zip Lock Child Resistance up Squeezeshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inShiny Furniture Fabric Garment PU Leather with Multi-Color and Soft Feel.

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*Cost model for variable-Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].866 5kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Universal Vector Inverter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.800W Electric Scooter , indicated inSafety Shape Bag /Food Packaging Contact Plastic Container for Resealable, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Good-Sealing Square Tin Can Engine Oil with Metal Lid$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Natural Wood Bintangor Face Veneer for Door and Furniture. Moreover,Vector Frequency Converter with High Performance for Automatic Production Equipment, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0), maintenance (Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Electric Motorcycle , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

White Crystalline Powder Europe Warehouse Fast Delivery BMK Glycidate PmkNitrogen Fertilizer Caprolactam Grade Ammonium SulphateCorresponding author