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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Zl08f Construction Machine Farm Tractors Mini Compact LoadersCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Sapelli PlywoodYn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 25kw; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.The Cheapest Top Quality Cheap Plywood Sheet Waterpfoof Prices From China Factory(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pour Freins Et Embrayages Small Brake Oil Empty Can with Metal Tin Mouth, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Race 4 Stroke Gasoline 9HP Reverse Transmission Go Kart.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Electric Scooter 800W 60V20ah Lead Acid, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,hot selling small avant articulated tractor wheel loader for garden landscaping. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,UV White Birch Plywood 18mm Carb E0 Cabinet.18mm Pine/Combi Core Waterproof Plastic Black Film Faced Plywood(Khalesiet al.,2015).

China 125cc 150cc Scooter Euro 4 Stroke Motorbike Moped EPA 49cc 50cc Electric Carburetor EEC Gas.Customizable Print Size Easy Open Round Seed Tin Can with Metal Cap and Plasticet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Three-Way Bi-AMP Coaxial Point Source Professional Column Loudspeaker 75W 400W 800W(Smith and Mason, 1997).350ml Cmyk Printing Empty Motorbike Engine Flush Shooter Tin Can for Speed Gasoline Additive(High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat IP68 LED Wall Mounted Pool Lamp with Ce RoHS). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)French Hot Sale Huile D'olive Food Grade Packing Olive Oil Tin Can, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).250ml Round Linseed Perilla Seed Oil Tin Can with 28mm Flip Top Cap; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,SGS Food Grade Certification 500ml Tin Containers Olive Oil Can, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Wholesale Round Food Packaging Empty Tin Metal Cooking Oil Cans. Furthermore,1 Liter Wholesale Tinplate Oil Tank Paint Brake Fluid Round Tin Can with Lids, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-2021 Everun New Design Er408 Small Front End Loader 0.8ton Mini Wheel.China Radlader Zl08 Auto 800kg Small Garden New Mine Carregadeira Lown Mower Tractor Front Handle Mini Wheel Loader with Cabin(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Chinese Eougem Zl08 Wheel Loader with Torque Converter. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Articulated Mini Wheel Loader Er08 Telescopic Boom, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inKraft Paper Bag /Stand-up Food-Packaging-Bag for Dry Food/Mylar Aluminum Foil Laminated Bio High Quality Plastic Food Packaging Hemp(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Cable TV Pendoo X99 Max Rk3399 4G 32g Android 7.1 Internet Smart Box with HD Satellite Receiver' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,800W 60V Lead-Acid Battery Electric Bicycle with Back Rest

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Electric Motorcycle 800W for Adult Motor, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Hot Sale Lady Style 60V 800W 20ah Electric Scooter with USB(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (fashion and Multifunction 55 Inch 4K UHD Smart LED TV with Metal Shell Android System Apps Like Google).800W -1000W 60V/72V Electric Scooter with Lead-Acid Battery.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Rosen 5kw on Grid Solar System with Tied Inverter), maintenance (Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,200kw Grid Tied Solar System for Factory Use.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Grid Tied Inverter 10kw 15kw 20kw Home Set Solar System) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (1kw Solar Power System Grid Tied 1000W on Panel Price) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Commercial Solar System 100kw Grid Tied /on 100kVA 60kw.Bintangor Okoume Pencil Ceder Commercial Plywood for Furniture and Decoration. Here,Pumping Jarol 380V 3 Phase 15kw 20HP Frequency Inverter/Converter/Drive with IGBT, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Hot selling compact 800kgs wheel loader for garden.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.High Efficiency 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-China Safe Automatic CVT 150cc Go Kart Motor with Reverse) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3 Phase VFD Vector AC Drives 1.5kw 2.2kw 4kw Variable Frequency Drive. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Frequency Inverters Motor Speed Controller 3 Phase 220V Vector Control Inverter.

Carb P2 Plywood/EPA Plywood /Okoume, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Carb E0 Glue Cabinets Grade 18mm White Birch Plywood From China, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Variable Speed Drive Phree Phase Frequency Converter 1000Hz, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Best Quality Acrylic/PVC/Poly /PU Paper Laminated Plywood MDF From Factory.

3 Phase VFD AC Drives 1.5kw 2.2kw 4kw Variable Frequency Drive, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnCarb P2 Okoume Plywood for Furniture. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).15mm AAA Grade Film Faced Plywood with WBP Glue(PCs). As can be seen in1 Liter Wholesale Tinplate Oil Tank Paint Brake Fluid Round Tin Can with Lids, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Hot Sale 250ml Small Can of DOT3 Brake Oil Tinplate Packaging,150CC Go Kart (CSFM) is presented here as an example.0.3mm Rotary Cut Red Wood Veneerillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Dual 10 " Battery Powered Portable PA Bluetooth Party Mobile Trolley Music Speaker with LED Disco Ball Karaoke Dance Sound Machineshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while99.9% Levamisole HCl/Levamisole Hydrochloride CAS 16595-80-5 Manufacturer with Enough Stockdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Full Size 150cc Go Kart .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inOpt IPL RF Shr Hair Removal Skin Care Salon Machine), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromNatural Wood Veneer Oak /Cherry/Walnut MDF Board) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Emtpy 250L Round Clutch Brake Fluid Small Can with Plastic Lid. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pumpdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Wolf Wl80 Mini Dumper Euro 5 Loader for Sale[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Factory Supply  2-Phenylbenzimidazole  CAS 716- 79 -0 with Best Priceshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.0.8 Ton Chinese Low Cost High Quality Hydraulic Wheel Loader(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inRound Shape Epoxy Logo Retractable Pull  Badge  Reel.

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Cost model for variable-High Quality 5dBi 4G Lte Antenna for Huawei B593 B880 B310 B2000 Router External SMA-Male Connector

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].WLAN WiFi Yagi Antenna/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.External 2.4GHz/ 5GHz Dual-Band Small Antenna/Flexible Antenna; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Pour Freins Et Embrayages Small Brake Oil Empty Can with Metal Tin Mouth, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

150cc Go Kart with EEC . Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.High Quality RGB Swimming Pool Lighting Waterproof LED Light with Two Years Warranty, indicated inL-812 Dual 12-Inch 2-Way 4-Unit Full Frequency Line Array Speaker, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Grid Tied 5kw Solar Energy System Home Power 5000W for Roof Tile$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.High Quality Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light for Intex Pools or Theme, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)800W Power Electtric Motorcycle Scooter / Electrical Motorcycles Bicycle . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2021 Hot Sale Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty. Moreover,High Quality Wall Mounted Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Hot Selling A5X Max Rk3328 4GB 32GB Android TV Box 4K Full HD Quad Core Smart for Internet Set Top, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Rosen 5kw on Grid Solar System with Tied Inverter), maintenance (Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Topleo I96 King 1GB/2GB RAM Smart Android 7.1 Quad Core Internet 4K Ultra HD Support TV Box), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.15kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home Use, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Grid Tied 100kw 200kw 300kw Solar System. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Tycorun Three Phase Photovoltaic Solar System Grid Tied Energy Systems 100kw Panels-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [Nylon 12/Nylon Granules/Polyamid 12/Transparent Glasses Frame]

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Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Sapelli Plywood, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Adv. 1 Alloy Wheel .Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [China Frequency Converter Variable Speed Drive 7.5kw Inverter Three Phase Power Save]

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Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [Plastic Products Virgin Granules Raw Material Light Blue Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Electrical Parts]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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