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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Diesel Engine Used for Silent Generator Set with Multy-CylinderCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.2L Empty Tin Container for Engine Oil Lubricant****AC to Drive 380V Frequency Inverter 4kw; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Electric Motorcycle , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.EEC Electric Scooter .

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter , sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Factory Produce Natural Face Veneer Size 1220X1830X0.25mm. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Electric Motorcycle/Scooter/Bike .800W EEC Electric Motorcycle(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter.1 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/One Scooter*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Endless Swimming Pool(Smith and Mason, 1997).High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz(Rosen 55kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Three Phase 380V Small Frequency Converter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Hot Sale High Performance Vector Frequency Converter 380V 45/55kw; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Single/Three Phase 220V 380V Vector Control Frequency Converter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Factory-Enginneered Veneer Ash in 0.30mm. Furthermore,Small Frequency Inverter 380V 50/60Hz, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter 1.5kw.1.2mm White Poplar Veneer From Factory for Exporting(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Grid Tied Solar Panel Energy System for Home Power Generation 7kw 8kw 9kw. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Eucalyptus Core or Birch for Veneer with Grade AA, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in1220*2440*18mm Birch Plywood with Carb P2 Standard Quality(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Wholesale 1.5 mm Natural Bamboo Skateboard Veneer with Best Price' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Eougem CE 1.0 Ton Hydraulic Mini Radlader Zl08

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Wolf 0.8t 800kg Mini Loader with Euro 3 Engine, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),500- 800W 48V 20ah OEM manufacturers Electric Scooter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Protective Surgical Medical Face Mask).800W Brushless Adult Electric Scooter.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (2021 New Type Fashionable Chinese Supplier Brushless Max Speed 35km/H 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle), maintenance (Best Chinese Big Wheel Electric Motorcycle Racing Bike Adult Bicycle) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Bd600 AC Frequency Inverter/Converter/220 V to 380 Inverter.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (1L Beer Can) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High Quality Electric Scooter Factory) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Cute Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Pedals 60V800W14ah Lithium Battery for Adults.1L Panit Can. Here,1L and 5L Can for Antifreezing Liquid, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2021 Fashionable High Quality with Lithium Battery Electric Scooters EEC Vespa Citycoco Newest Model Motorcycle.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Pump Inverter Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers AC Supplier(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Cheap Smart Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W20ah with Customer Foot Pedal) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Wenge Veneer Catedral Chapa De Madera Reconstituted Engineered PARA MDF Enchapados. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)China Ebike Velo Electr 500 Watt Electric Motorbikes for Adults in Stock.

Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Vector Air Compressor Power Transformer, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}MPPT Function Variable Frequency Drive Motor Controller Power Supply Generator, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,0.75kw-11kw Three Phase 380V Frequency Inverter VFD.

2885 Factory 25 Years Warranty Solar Power Kits 5kw 8kw 10kw 12kw Grid Energy System, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*2876 10kw Home Used Solar Power System on Grid Roof. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).2879 Free Shipping 10kw 12kw 15kw Home Used Solar Power System on Grid Roof(PCs). As can be seen inCyclopropyl Acetylene/ Lide Pharma- Factory Supply / Best Price CAS 6746-94-7, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*AAA Grade 0.9mm Poplar Core/Veneer for Plywood/Furniture*

Radiate Pine Face Veneer,Grade AA Veneer Furniture Building Material Plywood to Dubai(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Bintangor Okoume Pencil Ceder Commercial Plywood for Furniture and Decorationillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.17 Inch 18 Aftermarket New Design Aluminum Car Alloy Rimshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileVitamin a Palmitate CAS 79 -81-2demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,1L Wholesale Round Tin Can for Paint/Engine Oil with Tight Lid.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in6W /9W Self-Ballasted LED Light Bulb), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from8 Sides Sealed Aluminum Foil Bag Thickened Dog Food Packaging Tea Stand up Plastic Mylar Heat /Air/Water Resistant Container) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*Manufacturer of Enigine Oil Can*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Small Wheel Loader Wl80 800kg Loaders for Farm Work. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.PE Geomembrane/Waterproof Sheet Extrusion Linedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,1L Tin Can for Camellia Oil [9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Mini 220V Single Phase Input 2.2kw 3HP VFD Variable Frequency Converter Professional for Motor Speed Controlshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.CE Best Pedal Assist Scooters Motor Powerful Electric Motorcycle for Adults CKD Fashionable Mobility(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inHot Sell Customized Stoneware Mug with Glazed Handle.

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*Cost model for variable-Mxq 4K PRO Allwinner H3 Quad 7.1 1GB RAM 8GB ROM H. 265 3D Android Media TV Box*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].2021 Best Sale Fashionable Cheaper High Quality 1000W Adults 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Set Top Box T95q S905X2 4G 32g Android 9.0 HD TV Kodi Quad Core; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Electric Motorcycle , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Hot Popular Fast Shipping H. 265 Standars Czech Republic Channels Internet TV Box. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Junuo China Factory Mini Plastic E Digital Internet TV Set Top Box DVB T2 for Russia, indicated inPlastic PVC/CPVC Electricity Conduit Tube/ Water Sewage Pressure Pipe/Gas Hose/ Profile/Sheet Extrusion &Extruding Production Line Price, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

5 Litre Extra Olive Oil Tin Can $394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 2.2kw, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Frequency Converterlow Industrial Power Inverter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2370 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. Moreover,China Electric Moped Motorcycle Sale for Adults Mobility E Scooter with Battery, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Three Phase 380V/ 0.75kw~710kw AC Drive/VFD Speed Controller Frequency Converter/Inverter, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (2021 New Type Fashionable Chinese Supplier Brushless Max Speed 35km/H 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle), maintenance (Best Chinese Big Wheel Electric Motorcycle Racing Bike Adult Bicycle), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,DC/AC Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Power 400-600V Input 4kw), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Low Price B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Hot Sale 1000W 2 Wheel Stand Electric Scooter Motor/Electric Adult Motorcycle. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Solar Pump Inverter Price Quality AC Drive Frequency Converter-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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