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## Jacquard Fabric

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Manufacturer Supply Cosmetic Raw Material 98%-102% Tretinoin Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Low Price Ophthalmic a-Scan Ultrasound with Pachymeter Ho-100****Mule Deer Tranquilizer First Choice Tiletamine HCl Injection Free Sample 14176-50-2; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.MS-3100) Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan Pachymeter Biometer(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,4.8kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home Portable Power Generators, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Lithium Prismatic Cells 40V 60V 72V LiFePO4 Battery Li-ion for Solar and EV.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Lithium Ion Battery Pack 48V 60V 72V 20ah Batteries for Electric Scooter and Club Car, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,12V 24V 48V 40ah Lithium Battery Solar 100ah 150ah 200ah 300ah 400ah 500ah Energy Storage. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,5L Metal Round Cans for Paint or Chemical Packaging.150cc Motorcycle(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

5L Vegetable Cooking Oil Custom Tinplate Square Can.Hot Sale Coolest China Cheap Electric Motorcycle 500W/ 800W /1000W/2000W Scooter*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for CAS No. 63428-84-2 High Gloss Co-Solvent Soluble Polyamide Resin PA for Printing Ink(Smith and Mason, 1997).Wholesale Plastic Square 1 Liter Fertilizer Bottle(Wolf Baumaschinen Zl08 Radlader with Canopy). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Accredited Ce E Bike Batteries 36V 48V Ebike Battery 10ah-40ah Lithium, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).50cc Motorcycle; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Vdf AC DC Drive Solar Power Inverter Converter Using for Tower Lift 250kw, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Zhenhua Classic Motorcycle Dax 125cc Euro4. Furthermore,Super Cooling Smart Electric Scooter 500W 800W Motorcycle, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Wholesale 1L Round Empty Fully Synthetic Brake Oil Tin Can with Metal or Aluminum Caps.Scooter / Motorcycle Electric Motor Power 800W 1kw 2kw 3kw(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.5GHz Dual Pol Sector Antenna with Enclosure. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (5GHz 18dBi Dual Polarized Enclosure Antenna , 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inDecorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;2.4/ 5GHz 10dBi Rubber WiFi Antenna' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Hot Selling 800W Brushless Motor Electric Scooter Motorcycle

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Lady's E-Scooter 800W Hot Sale Made in China, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Quality Electric Motorbike with 800W Motor(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Stainless Steel Plastic Handle Food Processing Welded Butterfly Valve).800W 72V China Electric Tricycle for Handicapped.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Two Wheel Adult Automatic 800W 48V Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle with Pedals), maintenance (5GHz Antenna High Gain 16dBi Panel) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,2021 New Design Switch Control 12V 18W Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with CE RoHS IP68 Reports.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (5GHz 29.5dBi Die Cast Grid Antenna) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (No Flicker Glare 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.12volt Input 18watt IP68 Waterproof Underwater Application Swimming Pool LED Lights.5GHz 23dBi Dual Polarized Panel Antenna . Here,5GHz 27dBi Enclosure WiFi Antenna, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-TUV Certificate Gried Tied on Grid 20kw Solar PV System.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.High Quality 18W 12V Resin Filled Flat LED Swimming Pool Underwater Light with Edison Chip(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-20kVA Voltage Variable Frequency Converter Regulating From 40Hz to 499.9Hz 0-520V) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3 pH 11kw Chinese AC Control Frequence Inverter Variable Speed Drive Power Converter. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Water Proof Vet Ultrasound Scanner.

Three Phase Vector Frequence Converter with High Performance, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 Series, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}16"X6.0" 16'x7.0' 16X8.0 16X10 Trailer Steel Rim Wheel, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,AC Drive Frequnce Converter Frequence Inverter Manufacturer Supplier.

14"X5.0"J 14'x5.5'j 14X6.0j 14X7.0j Inch Steel Wheel for Sport Trailer, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Eougem Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Mini Front End Loader(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Efficiency 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Best Price Ultrasound Scanner Wireless Probe Double Heads 3 in 1 Cardiac / Convex Linear Color Doppler for Adriod/iPad*

Ultrasonic a B Scan Ophthalmic Eye Ultrasound Scanner with Low Price,Ce Approved Medical Portable Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Machine (CSFM) is presented here as an example.Zl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractorillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Steel PRO Audio Speaker Back Plate shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileDual 18 Subwoofer Speaker with 12 Inch Audio Professional Kas Line Arraydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Vitreous Hemorrhage .

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHome Textiles Modern Classic Jacquard Upholstery Furniture Fabric), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromInnopack 1L Square Engine Oil Tin Can with Screw Cap Manufacturer) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.High Quality Classic China Motor Cargo Three Wheel Motorcycle . The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Wholesales BMK White Powder Quality Certified CAS: 5413-05-8 New Stockdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Motorcycle with Dryweight 120-220kg[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Roof Mounting Solar System 10kw off Grid Tied Powershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Ce Approved 10inch Portable Laptop Bone Densitometer Ultrasound Scanner (a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inRiga Mega-Event Souvenir Tin Button Badge in Cute Stylesocial Interaction Zinc Alloy.

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*Cost model for variable-Zl08 Chinese Small Compact Garden Farm Tractor Front End Mini Wheel Loader with Attachments*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].B5 200cc 250cc 300cc Cargo Tricycle with Cabin Motorcycle Three Wheel Loncin Zongshen Lifan Engine/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Growatt 50000W 60000W 70000W 80000W Grid Tied Solar Inverter; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,4.8kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home Portable Power Generators, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Hot Selling Tricycle 250cc/ 300cc Three Wheel Motorcycle. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.ACTIVE AL908 0.8 ton Mini Wheel Loader with Wood Gripper and Pallet Fork, indicated inHK1 Smart TV Box Amlogic S905W Android 7.1 Quad Core 2GB 16GB, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Sp-1000ap Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Adult 150cc 200cc 300cc EPA Approved Three Wheel Mptorcycle Scooter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)300cc Road Legal Ault Street Gas Three Wheel Scooter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.China Supplier Ophthalmic Equipment Ultrasound Ab Scan. Moreover,Vimode Electric Scooter Adult Motorcycle for Adults 800W, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (150cc/200cc/250cc / 300cc Three Wheel Cargo Motorcycle /Tricycle, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Two Wheel Adult Automatic 800W 48V Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle with Pedals), maintenance (5GHz Antenna High Gain 16dBi Panel), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Heavy Duty Tricycle 250cc), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Electric Motorcycle Fashion Design 800W with Removable Battery, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},City Scooter 800W Long Range Electric. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.800W Electric Scooter Motorcycle Bicycle with Folding Rack-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

10inch Professional Karaoke Speaker for Luxury Room3 Seats 3000W 4 Wheel Mobility Disabled EEC/Coc Electric Mini Car with Lithium BatteryCorresponding author