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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with CoverCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Full HD Media Player Minix Neo N42c-4 N4200 4G 32g Internet Games Online Play Racing Windows 10 Smart Set Top Box Support Google Apk InstallCustomized Bintangor Plywood Face Veneer of Commercial; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.6000W Single Phase Inverter Grid Tied Home Solar System(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Complete Set 15kw Grid Tied Solar Power System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.China Cheap Colour Optional Electric Motorcycle for Adults.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Good Quality 2-Wheel Electric Motorcycle 500-1000W Scooter in Stock, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,China Electric Mobility Scooter Motorcycle with Lights/Electric Bicycle Moped Fast Delivery.Hot Sale Factory Direct Other Motorcycles Electric Bike with Price 48V Adults Two Wheels Motorcycle 500W(Khalesiet al.,2015).

World IPTV M3u Subscription 1 Year for Arabic Netherlands Malta Austria Bulgaria Romania Egypt Croatia Africa 9600 Channels Smart TV Android Apple.Factory Price Wholesale Vespa Electric Scooter Motorcycle Adultet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Home Use RF Velashape Machine(Smith and Mason, 1997).Cheaper Long Range off Road Best Selling Hot China Xindazhou Products Motorcycle Electric Adult(Q1--Dual10 Inch Line Array Speaker). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)2021 Fashion Electric Mtorcycle 2000W Motor China, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Mini Dumper Wolf Wl80 Loader with CE; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Engine Oil Cans 4 Liter Motor Lubricating Tin Can, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Yn725 Gyineng Mini Wheel Loader. Furthermore,Solar Pump Frequency Inverter MPPT Fuction 0.75kw, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Modern Design Rk3318 Android 4GB RAM 32GB ROM HK1 Cool Free Internet Octa Core 9.0 Set Top TV Box.Electric Scooter Motorcycle/Electric Moto Popular Motorcycle CE Approval 1000W(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.AC to Drive 380V Frequency Inverter 4kw. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Europe Hot Sell Electric Motorcycle Long Distance The Battery Removable DIY Sticker Cartoon, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inCheap Cute Electric Scooter with Foot Pedal 60V800W20ah From China(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;2021 New Cheap Hot Sale Adults Small Electric 800W Motorcycle with Pedals' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Jarol Frequency Inverter with High Quality , blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Linyi 9mm/12mm/15mm/18mm Pine/Bintangor/Okoume Film Faced Plywood(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Logistics Service FedEx Express From China to Greece).China Hot Sale Frequency Converter/Inverter 380V 50/60Hz.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Residential Grid Tied 6kw Solar Power System for Home), maintenance (Best Factory China Environmentally Friendly 800W CE Certification Electric Motorcycle for Adult) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Good Quality Factory Directly Electric Motorcycle 800W 1000W 60V for Adults.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (on Grid Solar Panel System 30kw Tied Home Power) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Tractor loader/ mini loader with four wheels for loading) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.2021 60V 20ah EEC Motorcycle Electric Moped Scooter 500/ 800W Motorbike.Chinese Industrial Titan Small 0.8 Ton Articulated Earth Mover Euro Auto Mini Farm Truck Wheel Tractor Front End Loader for Sale. Here,Newest Hot Sale Cheap Chinese Modern Self Balancing Mobility Adult Lithium Battery 800W Electric Motorcycles Scooters, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Three Phase Frequency Inverter Made in China Hot Sale.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.0.8ton mini wheel loader with small bucket for multifunctional use(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Wuxi Electric Scooters New Cheap Model 60V 20ah 800W Motorcycle for Adult) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Solar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Power for Home.

5kw Solar-Diesel Generation Hybrid Grid- Tied Power System, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Global Certificated 30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Commercial Projects, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

2852 Alicosolar Solar Energy System 10kw 5kw Power Home 15kw Grid Tied, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Cheap Commercial Plywood for Construction Decoration and Furniture Use.

Kodi TV Box Fully Loaded Chrome Android 9.1 OS T95 Max H6 4G 32g Internet Satellite, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnSolar Panel System 20kw Grid Tied Home Power 20 Kw Energy. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).20kw Grid Tied Solar System(PCs). As can be seen in3L/5 Liter Metal Can Packing Empty Cans for Ink and Coating From China Manufacturer, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Cheap Price Origin Brushless 800W Motor Electric Motorcycle Made in China,Rk3329 Ubuntu Mini PC HK1 Max Xbmc Chrome Cast TV Internet Box Quad Core Firmware Android(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Custom Printed Heat Seal Aluminum Plastic Cat Food Packaging Bag Child Resistant Mylarillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.PA System with Rigging Shackle Hardware Parts M25 shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileDC 24V Alternator Generator Speed Control Board Interface Module Eim258-9755demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,220VDC to 220VAC Variable Frequency Inverter.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inPlywood Machine Manufacturers), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHigh Quality 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Electrical VFD Frequency Inverter Three Phase 220V 380V 7.5/11kw for Solar Pump. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.E320L/B/C/D Boom Arm Bucket Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kitsdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.The Use of Tiletamine Xylazine Anesthesia for Feral Cat Guideline CAS: 14176-50-2shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.380V 400Hz 3p AC Drive Hot 15kw Frequency Converter(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inAutomatic Corrugated Carton Folder Gluer and Packing Machine.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].3 Phase Mini AC DC Frequency Inverter Motor Speed Controller Power Supply 5.5kw-110kw/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.VFD Frequency Converter Inverter for Constant Pressure Water Supply; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Complete Set 15kw Grid Tied Solar Power System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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large cabin and powerful engine Customized 0.8ton mini wheel loader$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Qingzhou 0.8ton Shovel Loader Small Front with Bucket for Sale, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Eougem 0.8ton Articulated Payloader Zl08 with Changchai Engine. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.AL908 0.8ton Wheel Loader Machinery for Sale. Moreover,Chinese Everun Zl08 800kg 0.8 Ton Compact Small Mini Wheel Loader with Snow Bucket, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (800kg China Small Front High Quality Wheel Loader for Sale in Europe, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Residential Grid Tied 6kw Solar Power System for Home), maintenance (Best Factory China Environmentally Friendly 800W CE Certification Electric Motorcycle for Adult), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Melamine Glue WBP Commerical Plywood), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Decorative Pine Groove Plywood Veneer Fancy, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [Stainless steel brew sampling valve]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [Plastic PE Pipe Production Line]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [Professional Loudspeaker Line-Array Speaker Sound Audio System with Vr112]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Full HD Media Player Minix Neo N42c-4 N4200 4G 32g Internet Games Online Play Racing Windows 10 Smart Set Top Box Support Google Apk Install, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-9mm E1 Glue Bintangor Plywood Board.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.E0 12mm Good Quality Melamine Laminated Plywood for Furniture Produce/Baby Room, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [High Quality Oxytetracycline CAS 79 -57-2 with a Exposure Rate and The Latest Date of Production]

Lashgari, A.E-Scooter Electric Motorcycle Manufacture/Electric Adult off Road E-Motorcycle 800W, A.R. 2013.AC Drive,Hot Sale 60V 800W Brushless Motor Two Wheel Electric Motorcycle,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Men's Perfume 3 Sets of Durable Fragrance Refreshing Ocean Cologne Gift Box]

Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169.         [New Condition Large Capacity Mini Truck Dumper]

Mcnab, B., Jancovic, A., David, D., and Payne, P. 2009. Processing of magnetite iron ores-comparing grinding options.Proceedings of the AusIMM Iron Ore Conference,Perth, WA, 27-29 July 2009.         [Solar Tool Set/Bad/Box Cable Stripping Wire Cutter Mc4 Connector Spanner Wrench for PV System Panel 14-10AWG 2.5-6mm2]

Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.Sell Well 800W 60V Electric Motorcycle for Daily Riding,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [Transparent Flat Bottom Box Pouch Stand up Zip Lock Eight Sides Seal Bag Side Gusset Standing Plastic Clear Coffee Bags Manufacturer Reusable PE Pet Food]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [High Quality Chemical Product 4- ]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.China Reliable Quality 3.7kw 3-Phase Solar Water Pump Inverter for Irrigation System, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp.         [High Quality Classic Movie Character Car Table Decoration Miniature Action Figure Gift for Halloween Day]

Mular, A.L. 1982.15kw Grid Tied Solar System.Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar Panel System.0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, Montreal. 265 pp.         [Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.12kw Grid Tied Complete Set Easy Installation Solar Energy System for Home Use or Industrial.Grid Tied 11kw Solar Panel System Home Commercial Power Supply.0.5HP Elevator Inverter Price Electronics 220V 240V Three Phase Pump, Montreal. 319 pp.         [Electronics ESD Moisture Barrier Aluminum Foil Bag Shielding Anti-Static Plastic for Electronic Parts]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.5kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home Use.Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,vol. 128. pp. 563-575.         [Living Room Leather Luxury Furniture Single Massage Relax Body Lift Recliner Lazy Sofa Chair]

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Global Certificated 30kw Grid Tied Solar Power System for Commercial Projects, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Sporty Electric Scooter .Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,vol. 27. pp.133-141.         [Ophthalmic a Scan Portable Handheld Biometer]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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