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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric BikeCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Zhenhua New T5 300cc Motorcycle Efi****L18 /86131 Falante Professional 18inch Subwoofer 700W New Product China Supplier Hot Sale; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.EEC Efi Racing Motorbike Motorcycles 125cc(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Motorbicycle with Efi Fuel Supply and Steel Tube Frame, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High Speed Kawasaki Ninja Motorcycle 250cc.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Mini Nameplate Pneumatic Engraving Machine, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Electric Smart Cargo Car Tricycle 800W 40km/H Long Running Range. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Mini electric truck/ express vehicle/ Express vehicles.Bost Motorcycle Parts Accessories Air Filter for 2-Wheel 4-Stroke Gy6 -125 -150 Bikes(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

BAW Made of Electric Car with Lithium Battery.EEC L2e 1500W 3 Wheel Enclosed Electric Cabin Scooter*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Top Quality Tretinoin Powder Retinoic Acid for Skin Care(Smith and Mason, 1997).M7 Model LHD&Rhd EV with Solar Panel Pure Electric Car(Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 152sn924). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)50cc Monkey Bike Gasoline Motorcycle Euro4 Efi, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).4x2 electric pickup truck/ Electric vehicle/ car; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Electric 4 Wheelers Cars 800W 50km/H Mini Old Man Tricycle , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.2021 New Products Motor Power 800W Electric Trolley Tractor. Furthermore,Motorcycle Scooter Front Clutch Assembly Compatible with Gy6 -50 Engines, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-1L Tin Can with Metal Cap for Food Storage.Motorcycle Engine Spare Part Dipstick for Scooter Kymco Gy6 -60(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.1L 1.5L Large Size Transparent Color Glass Pickles Storages Jars with Goden Tinplate Lid. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Motorcycle Plane Bearing Spare Parts for Gy6 125-Oumurs, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inSafe Delivery CAS 49851-31-2 / 2-Bromovalerophenone Yellow Liquid and 1009-14-9(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;1L Aluminum Tin Can for Food Packaging ' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Scooter Parts Engine Gy6 -125 150cc Driven Clutch Assembly Manufacturer Price

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Cheap 20W Fiber Laser Color Metal Marking Marker Machine Price, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Stainless Steel Metal Rotray Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Aluminum(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (High Quality Large Storage Best Seller Make up Bag Washable Stylish Custom Kraft Paper Cosmetic for Travel).Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine for Automotive.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (CATV Indoor Amplifier 8200), maintenance (4-20mA Oil Fuel Sensor Explosion Proof Differential Pressure Transmitter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Softel 3ru CATV 24 Way Fixed-Channel Analog Modulator.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Metal Fiber Ring Color Laser Engraving Machine) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Perfect Laser Rotary DOT Peen Marker for Sale) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.0-5V 0-10V Raw Petro High Temperature Sapphire Pressure Transducer.Hot Sells Solar Power System for Home 3kwh with Both AC&DC Output. Here,6 Injectors Testing & Coding Simultaneously Diesel Test Bench for Common Rail System Eui Eup Heui Heup Cummins Hpi , separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-110/90- 17 Used Tubeless Second Hnad Motor Tire/Tyre.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.3kwh LiFePO4 Battery with 5 Years Warranty(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Anti Explosion High Stability Sealed Pressure Sensor) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Best Price 2021 New Product 3kwh Home Solar System for Outdoor Use. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Screw Compressor Low Cost Small Type Pressure Sensor.

Solar Energy Storage System Built-in Inverter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (4-20mA Diffused Silicon Micro Size Hygienic Pressure Transducer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Lithium Battery 200ah LiFePO4 Pack 3kwh, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Smokeless Rice Husk Continuous Carbonization Oven for Sale.

45kw Mf Induction Heating Machine Heater, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Ytd-Dih25 IGBT Automatic Induction Heating Machine. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Solar Battery Solutions 3kwh Lithium LiFePO4 Hybrid System(PCs). As can be seen inAirtight Child Pop up Squeeze Plastic Stand Flat Bottom Pet Cat Food Packaging Bag, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Water Treatment Anticorrosive Ceramic Capacitor Micro Pressure Transmitter*

Switch Control 12V 18W RGB Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Light Underwater with CE RoHS IP68 Reports,316L Ceramic Pressure Transducer for Health Care Industry(CSFM) is presented here as an example.1kw Solar Power System Grid Tied 1000W on Panel Priceillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Samsung 55inch Ultra Thin 1.7mm 700 Brightness 2X3 3X3 Video Wall Solutionshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileReal Mink 3D 5D New Fashion Fast Shipping High Quality Best Seller Eyelashdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Factory Wholesale Price Industrial Induction Vacuum Furnace.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inBlue Cosmetic Packaging Glassware Glass Spray Bottle Perfume Bottles), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromProfessional All Weather Water-Proof Indoor Outdoor 4inch Speaker) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Water Transmitter Diffused Silicon Level Sensor for Fluid. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.20kw Grid Tied Solar Systemdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Digital Display Hygienic Pressure Indicator Transmitter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Living Room Furniture Specific Use Fabric Leisure Sofashows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.High Stable Universal Pressure Transmitter(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inNew Cosmetic Iridescent Makeup Brushes Styles 2021 Private Label OEM 7PCS Rainbow Make up Brush Set Logo Custom Tools.

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*Cost model for variable-4-20mA Micro Air Gas Differential Pressure Sensor Transducer*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].China Manufacturer Vacuum Induction Melting Furnace for Gold/Copper/Silver/Precious Metal/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Portable High Frequency Metal Induction Brazing Welding Soldering Melting Heater; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Motorbicycle with Efi Fuel Supply and Steel Tube Frame, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Mobile Induction Heater for Welding Brazing Melting$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Fractional RF & Thermal Beauty Machine, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Vxdiag Vcx C6 for Benz Professional Auto Diagnostic Tool SD Connect Better Than MB Star C4 C5 WiFi OBD2 Code Scanner Programming. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Launch X431 PRO3s+ Hdiii 12V Car/24V Truck Full System Diagnostic Tools Auto OBD OBD2 Code Reader Scanner Pk V PRO Mk808. Moreover,Hot Selling Tires Motorcycle Tyres 110/90- 17, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Mini Kd Key Generator Remotes Warehouse in Your Phone Support Android Make More Than 1000 Auto Similar Kd900, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (CATV Indoor Amplifier 8200), maintenance (4-20mA Oil Fuel Sensor Explosion Proof Differential Pressure Transmitter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Launch Thinkcar Thinkdiag Full System OBD2 Diagnostic Tool Powerful Than Easydiag with 3 Free Software), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.90/90-21 China Super Cheap Motorcycle Tire/Tyre, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},110/90-18 Bigbiz Brand Motorcycle Tyre/Tire for Europe Market. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Water Bottles Wrapping Machines Semi Automatic Film Shrink Machine-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Inverter AC DriveApr125 Red MotorcycleCorresponding author