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## China Century Custom Neon Sign for Shop Break The Rules LED

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**1L High End Glass Vodka Wine Bottle with Matte Black FinishCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price****Canada IPTV Server Subscription Resellers Panel French Spain USA Turkey Arab Android Box Smart TV Mag M3u IP; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Frequency Converter for Water Pump(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter.Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap.Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Karaoke System 10 Inch Sound Speaker Cvr Professional Audio(Smith and Mason, 1997).850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage(Free Sample White Crystalline Powder Procaine South America Warehouse CAS: 51-05-8 Larocaine). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Hot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike. Furthermore,0.8 Ton Mini/Small Tractor Front End Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Forklift, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw.Wheel Loader Mini Wolf Wl80 with Forks(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Zl08 0.8 Ton Agricultural Farm Articulated Mini Wheel Loader with Hydraulic System. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inIP68 8W-42W Surface Mounted Multi-Color LED Underwater Swimming Light(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Custom Amphibious Swamp Drilling Buggy Platform with Jacking Spud Leg).Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale), maintenance (Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE ) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale.Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin. Here,Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725g) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Low Frequency Inverter AC Drive.

Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw.

Inverter, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pump(PCs). As can be seen inPA12 Transparent Polyamide with Anti-UV Granules, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*AC Drive Variable Drive*

China AC Drive Manufacturers,China AC Drive Frequency Inverter Manufacturer Supplier(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Decent Aluminum Foil Plastic Zipper Packing Bag for LED Light Strip/PCB Board Packing/IC Vacuum Packagingillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.FPM FKM Viton EPDM SBR Cr Silicone NBR Rubber Partsshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whilePA Speaker Sound System Dual 8'' Two-Way Line Arraydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Good Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inBest Selling School Bags Sports Backpack Business), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromBiocar Multifunctional 2-Phenylbenzimidazole CAS 716- 79 -0 C13h10n2 with CE Certificate) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*1500W Electric Motorcycle*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.High Speed Electric Motorcycle Scooter. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.320W Driving Power 500W 99dB Professional Column Speaker Dante Features Imported Unit with Ml8ad190824demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Bl-Xgz Electric Motorcycle[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Articulated Mini Wheel Loader Er08 Telescopic Boomshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPlush Christmas Sitting Dog.

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*Cost model for variable-Hot Cheap Electric Scooter for Two Seats 60V800W20ah with USB Charger*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Bl-Xgw Electric Motorcycle/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Yineng Yn725 Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Home Solar System 2kw Panel$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Morel Free Shipping 10kw on Grid Tied PV Solar System Home Use for Lighting Heating Air Conditioner, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)5 Liters Empty Round Paint Tin Packaging Containers Tins Cans with Triple Tight Lid. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Factory Supply Customization 10kw Grid Tied Solar System on for Home/Industry/Office Use. Moreover,Mars Solar 350W 360W Panel Complete Power System 30kw Grid Tied Inverter with WiFi for Commercial Use, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (High Quality 5000W Grid Tied Solar Power Generation System Competitive Price, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale), maintenance (Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,843 3kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Electric Motorcycle 1000W Motorbike 60V Fast Speed Moped 65km/H, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Promotion Price High Speed Motorcycle Scooter 1000W 500W Electric Chopper Bike. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Yangtze 10kw Grid- Tied Solar System-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Lashgari, A.7.5 Liter Protein Powder Tubs Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Container, A.R. 2013.5 Liter Round Empty Protein Powder Jars for Sports Food/HDPE Plastic Container,*Yn725g Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Hobby Desktop CNC Router with 1.5kw]

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USBM. 1987.Pipo X8 PRO Win 10 Android 5.1 Z8350 Support Bluetooth 4.0 7 Inch Tablet PC,500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Station-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Qt10-15 Cheap Concrete Cement Paving Block Making Machine]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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