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vol.117 issue1Flotation of mercury from the tailings of the Agh-Darreh gold processing plant, IranÂauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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On-line version ISSN2411-9717
Print version ISSN2225-6253

J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


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Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Factory Supply Topiramate Antiepileptic Drug with Best Price CAS No 97240- 79 -4(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Cosmetic Grade L-Arginine with Best Price, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Anti-Wrinkle and Aging Chemical Raw Materials.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


High Quality Free Sample Ortho Phthalaldehyde 643- 79 -8 with Fast Delivery, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Waterproof Childproof Ziplock Valve Bag. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Professional Sound Speaker Single 8 Inch Portable Stage Monitor PS8r2.Pharmaceutical CAS 5413-5-8 BMK Ethyl 2-Phenylacetoacetate(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Factory Supply Hot Sale CAS No. 148- 79 -8 Thiabendazole Price.L-Arginine Powder Amino Acid Pure Manufactureret al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Glycolic Acid Cosmetic Grade CAS 79 -14-1 /a-Hydroxyacetic(Smith and Mason, 1997).White Powder Vitamin a for Food and Feed Grade(Hot Sale 10'' Ferrite Karaoke Professional Loudspeaker Whith 500 Watt Loudspeaker.). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Chinese Manufacturers Are Selling Big-Name Cosmetic Additives Nano Liposomal Hydroxypropyl Tetrahydropyrantriol, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Professional Line Array Speaker Neodymium Af15; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Manufacturer Supply CAS 79 -14-1 Glycolic Acid 70% 99% Cosmetic Grade, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Q210 Passive PA Speaker System. Furthermore,Retinol Palmitate/Vitamin a Palmitate Oil as Food Ingredient, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Professional 24 Channels Digital Audio Mixer Console.100% Natural Huperzia Serrata Extract 1% 5% 99% Huperzine a Brown Powder Supplements(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Skin Care Raw Material Vitamin a Palmitate Powder. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Lf Drivers 10 Inches Professional Speaker Pw1032-64, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inThe New Natural Mahogany Okoume Veneer(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;12" Loudspeaker as Monitor Speaker System 12 Inch Powerful Coaxial' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,P-Toluenesulfinic Acid Sodium Salt Hydrate

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Bloom Tech Chemical Reagent Bis , blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Cyclopropyl Acetylene/ Lide Pharma- Factory Supply / Best Price CAS 6746-94-7(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Custom Outdoor Inflatable Pop up Tent 10X10FT).CAS: 13463-67-7 Titanium Dioxide Powder.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Nutrition Food Grade Dl-Pyroglutamic Acid Pure L-Pyroglutamic), maintenance (Factory Supply 99% Dexketoprofen Trometamol Powder) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,10W Wall Mount Speaker with Transformer 8 Ohm 100V Bluetooth .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Karaoke Wireless Portable Bluetooth PA Trolley Speaker Box) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Feiyang New Hot Selling Trolley Speaker Fg210-06) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.V-Sub 18" PA Audio Cardioid Subwoofer Speaker for Home Theater.PRO Audio PA System Digital Mixer. Here,Food Grade L-Arginine with Best Price, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-J8 Dual 12'' Line Array PA Speaker Professional Stage Audio System.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.10 " 12"15"18" PA Speakers Loudspeaker Cabinet/Enclosure(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Wild Bee Venom Extract Melittin 99% Powder for Skin Care) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Supply High Quality Glycolic Acid Powder for Skin Whiting CAS 79 -14-1. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Retinoic Acid CAS 302- 79 -4 in Stock.

Plastic Clear White Stand-up Drinking Liquid Spout Food Packaging Bag, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (ISO Certified 100% Natural L-Arginine Powder, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

High Quality Cosmetic Grade Hydroxyacetic Acid Glycolic CAS 79 -14-1, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Chemical Reagent Bloom Tech 2.

High Quality Opa O-Phthalaldehyde with Best Price, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnWholesale Factory Price High Quality Retinol Palmitate/Vitamin a Palmitate of Cws 250iu/G. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).KTV 10 Inch Speaker Box with Good Sound(PCs). As can be seen inCE China manufacturers mini wheel loader for sale at cheap price, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Hot Sale Model V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker,Dual 10 Inch Line Aray Powered Active Sound System(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Top Selling 1illustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Grid Tied Inverter 10kw 15kw 20kw Home Set Solar Systemshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while100 PCS Child Proof Bags Smell Mylar Bag Flower Cbd Gummy Candy Cookies Packaging Resistant Exit Zip Lock Pouch Food Containerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,60W 10 " Portable HP5 Series Trolley Speaker with 2 UHF Mics.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHygienic flow indicator made of stainless steel), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromGrowatt 2kw on Grid Inverter 2000W Tied for Solar Power System Home) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Dual 10inch PA Audio Line Array Speaker Box System. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.46''55''65''75'' High Quality Double Sided LCD Touch Screen Monitor Bus Shelter Advertising Media Playerdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Dual 10 " 600W Line Array PA Professional Speaker [9] were tested by different statistical approaches.O2 Oxygen Sensor for Honda Accord 2.3L 4 Cyl F23A4 2000-2002 234-9014shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.10 " Dia Cast Aluminum Professional Subwoofer Basket(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWholesale Cosmetic Packaging Customized Various Size Perfume Glass Dropper Bottle Bottles.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Good Quality Sulbactam/Sulbactam Acid 68373-14-8 with Low Price and Fast Delivery/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.L-Arginine 99%; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Cosmetic Grade L-Arginine with Best Price, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Factory Direct Semi-Synthetic Glycopeptide Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Raw Material Dalbavancin $394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.High Temperature 3 Side Seal Retort Pouch for Corn, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)R-3-Amino-1-N-Boc-Piperidine. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.ISO Certified 100% Natural L-Arginine Powder. Moreover,Mylar Barrier Exit Waterproof Cr Bag, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Stand-up Ziplock Dried Food Packaging Vacuum Plastic Container, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Nutrition Food Grade Dl-Pyroglutamic Acid Pure L-Pyroglutamic), maintenance (Factory Supply 99% Dexketoprofen Trometamol Powder), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,High Quality Laminated Food Grade Roll Film), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.D&B Style Dual 10 Inch Compact Line Array , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [D2 / 1.2379 Mold Alloy Forged Tool Steel Round Bar]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [Proxima Entertainment Z-450 Digtal Speaker]

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Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Dual 10 " Compact Speaker Line Array , neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [25KW Ground Mini loader price]

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Mcnab, B., Jancovic, A., David, D., and Payne, P. 2009. Processing of magnetite iron ores-comparing grinding options.Proceedings of the AusIMM Iron Ore Conference,Perth, WA, 27-29 July 2009.         [Retinol Palmitate/Vitamin a Palmitate Oil as Food Ingredient]

Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.Lf Driver 10 Inches 64mm Glass Fiber Coil Professional Speaker ,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [Body Circumference Reduction RF Vacuum Fast Slimming System Beauty Apparatus]

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Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Dual 10 Inch Line Array for Church , Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp.         [Wholesale 14oz 12oz 10oz China Ceramic Tea Cup Drinking]

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O'hara T. A. and Subolesk,i C.S. 1992. Costs and cost estimation.Custom Kraft Paper Flexible Food Packaging Flat Bottom Bag-100gr.vol. 1.Custom Water Proof Child Resistant Food Grade Plastic Aluminum Laminated Stand up Container Bag, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, CO. Chapter 6.3, pp. 405-424.         [Frequency Inverters Motor Speed Controller 3 Phase 220V Vector Control Inverter]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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