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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Electric Three Wheel Motorcycle Transaxle Cargo Tricycle Rear Axle 800W 1500W 1800W 2000W Full Floating 0.5ton~1.2ton AccessoriesCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin****Sp215 Sound Prince Style Speaker Acoustic; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Gurjan Veneer Keruing(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Everun CE Approved 0.8 Ton Front End Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Empty Lubricant Oil Tin Can Packaging for Motor.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

974 Solar 30kw 40kw 50kw on Grid Tie Power System for House/Factory Roof, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,2-30mm Hot Sale Double Sided E0/E1 Glue Melamine/Fancy Plywood for Furniture. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,New Products Customized Support 1080P Decoder Box H. 265 TV with Internet Port.2393 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Factory Product 4K Android TV Box Mxq PRO Rk3229 7.1 1GB 8GB.970 Solar 30kw 40kw on Grid Tie Power System for Factory Roof*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Articulated Mini Wheel Loader Er08 Telescopic Boom(Smith and Mason, 1997).Best Price Food Tin Metal Box Clip Lid Candy Can(Good Price CE 500W Bicicletas Electricas 48V Electric Motorcycle 800W for Adult). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)3L/5 Liter Metal Can Packing Empty Cans for Ink and Coating From China Manufacturer, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).High Quality Mxq PRO 4K Rk3229 1GB 8GB Android7.1 Quad Core Android TV Box; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Efficicency Roof Mounting Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.488 Alicosolar High Quality 20kw on Grid Solar System 20000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. Furthermore,969 Solar 30kw 40kw on Grid Tie Power System for Factory Roof, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-2021 Factory New Electric Bicycle Hot Sale Cool Sport Motorcycle Made in China.Rosen 9kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Frequency Converter 200HP Three Phases. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Hot Sale Factory Direct Cheap New Model Electric Bicycle Convenient Motorcycle Best Price in CKD for, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in4 Stroke Buggy 150cc ATV(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;OEM 6kw Home Grid Tied Solar Power System Without Battery' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory 18L Wholesale Large Square Aluminium Tin Can with Screw Top Lid

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Hot Sale Factory Direct Colorful Electric Motorcycle for Passenger Made in China, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Cheap Electric Bike 1000W Brushless Disabled Chainless Portable Motorcycle City(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (OEM FDA 75% Alcohol Hand Liquid Soap Gel for Restaurant).Square Engine Oil Tin Can with Screw Cap Manufacturer Lid.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 150HP), maintenance (Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 125HP) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 160HP.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 60HP) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 75HP) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Frequency Converter 75HP Three Phases.Hot Sell for European Countries 48V 20ah Lithium Battery Fast Food Delivery Electric Motorcycle. Here,CE Approved Everun Er408 Small Farming Cheap Mini Front End Compact Wheel Loader, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Frequency Converter 50HP Three Phases(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Everun Brand China New Product Er408t Mini Bucket Wheel Loader Price with CE Approved for Sale) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.

10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (957 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}China E-Bike Manufacturer Dropship Electro Motorcycle Electric Beach Cruiser Bicycle Chopper for Girls, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Zl08 0.8t Hot Sale Small Yard Loader Mini Tractor Front End.

Wl80 Mini Loader with Yanmar Engine, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Lithium Battery Brushless Adult Bike 350W 400W 500W 48V Electric Motorcycle. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Solar Energy System 10kw 15kw Grid Tied Hybrid PV(PCs). As can be seen inSeal Kits Komatsu PC200-5/6 Boom Cyl Kit, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin*

2385 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use,Red Oak Veneered MDF for Interior Design and Renovations(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Wild Bee Venom Extract Melittin 99% Powder for Skin Careillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.5GHz 18dBi Sector WiFi Antennashows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while12inch Stage Monitor Speakerdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Zl08 0.8ton China Articulated Tractor Front End Wheel Loader Yard.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inWholesale Promotional High Quality Souvenir Metal Award Military Medal Custom Sport with Ribbon), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromMini Variable-Frequency Drive/ VFD /Adjustable-Frequency Drive /Afd/ Variable-Voltage/Variable-Frequency /Vvvf/Drive/ Variable Speed /VSD/AC) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 7.5kwdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Hot Selling to Nigeria Market Manufacture Motorbike Tyre 3.50-18shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inEaa Shenzhen Shipping Agency TNT/DHL/UPS International Freight Forwarder.

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*Cost model for variable-Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Quality; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Everun CE Approved 0.8 Ton Front End Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

off Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kit. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult, indicated in55% Rubber Content Tyre China High Quality Motorcycle Tires 2.75- 17, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Rosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.475 Alicosolar Good Quality 15kw on Grid Solar System 15000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for House Use, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)959 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.498 Alicosolar Good Price 25kw on Grid Solar System 25000W Power Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. Moreover,Hybrid Solar Energy System 5kw 30kw on Grid Inverter with Lithium Battery, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (955 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 150HP), maintenance (Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 125HP), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Wolf Mini Loader Wl80 with Grass Cutter800ml Square Metal ContainersCorresponding author