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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



0.18mm Zebra Wooden VeneerCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Supply High Quality Glycolic Acid Powder for Skin Whiting CAS 79 -14-1Proxima Entertainment Z-450 Digtal Speaker; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Retinoic Acid CAS 302- 79 -4 in Stock(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Plastic Clear White Stand-up Drinking Liquid Spout Food Packaging Bag, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.ISO Certified 100% Natural L-Arginine Powder.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


High Quality Cosmetic Grade Hydroxyacetic Acid Glycolic CAS 79 -14-1, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Chemical Reagent Bloom Tech 2. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,High Quality Opa O-Phthalaldehyde with Best Price.Wholesale Factory Price High Quality Retinol Palmitate/Vitamin a Palmitate of Cws 250iu/G(Khalesiet al.,2015).

KTV 10 Inch Speaker Box with Good Sound.10 Inch Powered Line Array Speaker Activeet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for L-Pyroglutamic Acid(Smith and Mason, 1997).Hot Sale Model V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker(16 in 1 CATV Modulator Fixed Frequency). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Dual 10 Inch Line Aray Powered Active Sound System, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).60W 10 " Portable HP5 Series Trolley Speaker with 2 UHF Mics; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Manufacturer Supply 1, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Dual 10inch PA Audio Line Array Speaker Box System. Furthermore,Dual 10 " 600W Line Array PA Professional Speaker , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-10 " Dia Cast Aluminum Professional Subwoofer Basket.Food Packaging Vacuum Pouch(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Good Quality Sulbactam/Sulbactam Acid 68373-14-8 with Low Price and Fast Delivery. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (L-Arginine 99%, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in25KW Ground Mini loader price(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;China Factory Price CAS 702- 79 -4 1' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,ISO Certified 100% Natural L-Arginine Powder

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Mylar Barrier Exit Waterproof Cr Bag, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Stand-up Ziplock Dried Food Packaging Vacuum Plastic Container(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Radial Giant OTR Tyre 36.00r51 E4 for Rigid Dump Truck).High Quality Laminated Food Grade Roll Film.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (D&B Style Dual 10 Inch Compact Line Array ), maintenance (Safety Shape Bag /Food Packaging Contact Plastic Container for Resealable) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Custom Plastic Coffee Flat Bottom Food Packaging with Ziplock Container.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Family Usage Embossed Vacuum Bags for Food) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Matte Black Food Packaging Stand-up Pouch Aluminum Foil Bag) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Snsck Food Bag Fried Flat Bottom Box Pouch with Zipper.Dual 10 " Compact Speaker Line Array . Here,10 " Woofer with 3" Voice Coil, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Lf Drivers 10 Inches 50-4000 Response Martin Audio Speaker Pw1026-64.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Dual 10 Inch Line Array Speaker for Theater (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Lf Driver 10 Inches 64mm Glass Fiber Coil Professional Speaker ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Dual 10 Inch Line Array for Church . MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)15 Inch/12 Inch/ 10 Inch/8 Inch Full Range Speaker Box .

10'' Inch Ferrite Woofer, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (V20 Dual 10 Inch Three-Way Audio Small Line Array Speaker, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Q1 Dual 10 " Line Array System, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,D&B Style Dual 10 " Compact Line Array .

New Tw Audio Vera36 Dual 10 " Line Array Speaker System, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnProfessional Line Array Vtx V20 Dual 10 Inch Three Way Speaker. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Dual 10 " Compact Professional Line Array (PCs). As can be seen inRetinol Palmitate/Vitamin a Palmitate Oil as Food Ingredient, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Titan Brand 0.8 Ton High Quality Mini Wheel Loader with and Performance.shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileElectric Dirt Bike Zm-Es18 with 500W- 800W Motordemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Buy 99% Retinoic Acid Powder Vitamin a Tretinoin Retinol for Cosmetic.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inEye Hook with Latch Lifting Dimensions), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromFrequency Inverters Motor Speed Controller 3 Phase 220V Vector Control Inverter) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Child Resistant Waterproof Plastic Bag with Zipper. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.4WD Wheel Loader Manufacture Small Radlader 1.0 Ton Mini780demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Kraft Paper LDPE Supermarket Vegetable Cosmetic Fruit Packaging Bag[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPAshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Fried Chicken Sweet Chili Sauce Food Packaging(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inModern Red Color Independent Simple Art Colorful Bathtub for Adult.


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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Kraft Paper Flat Bottom Bag with Ziplock/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.New Model V8 D&Bstyle Dual 10 Inch Three Way Line Array Speaker; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Plastic Clear White Stand-up Drinking Liquid Spout Food Packaging Bag, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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99% Pure CAS 56-95-1 Bulk Chlorhexidine Diacetate/Acetate Powder$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Lf Driver 10 Inches 63.5mm Kapton Coil Professional Speaker , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)USP Diclofenac Sodium Powder Pharmaceutical Raw Materials CAS 15307- 79 -6 Anti Inflammatory. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Click 2021 Hot CAS 85-27-8 Symwhite Phenylethyl Resorcinol Made in China. Moreover,Cosmetic Raw High Purity CAS 79 -81-2 Vitamin a Palmitate Powder, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (10'' Inch Ferrite Woofer, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (D&B Style Dual 10 Inch Compact Line Array ), maintenance (Safety Shape Bag /Food Packaging Contact Plastic Container for Resealable), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,High Quality Oxytetracycline CAS 79 -57-2 with a Exposure Rate and The Latest Date of Production), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.10'' Ferrite Woofer, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Professional Stage Line Array System Dual 10 Inch DSP Active Speaker . Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.D&B Style Dual 10 " Professional Speaker Line Array -feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [60cm Length 4000W Power UK Socket USB Charger Electrical P2-60-UK]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [High Purity 99% Oxalyl Chloride with Good Quality]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Supply High Quality Glycolic Acid Powder for Skin Whiting CAS 79 -14-1, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Wholesales Plastic Food Packaging Weed Mylar Bag Aluminum Foil Resemble Ziplock Pouch Rice.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [3X3 video wall LCD HD 1080P digital display screen]

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Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169.         [Buy Prilocaine Hydrochloride Local Anesthetic Powder Factory Wholesales Price CAS: 1786-81-8]

Mcnab, B., Jancovic, A., David, D., and Payne, P. 2009. Processing of magnetite iron ores-comparing grinding options.Proceedings of the AusIMM Iron Ore Conference,Perth, WA, 27-29 July 2009.         [High Lumen Resin Filled RGB PAR56 DC12V Flat LED Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lights]

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Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [IGBT Induction Heater Heating Equipment for Metal Surface ]

Mular, A.L. 1978. Mineral Processing Equipment Costs and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations. A Handbook of Major Equipment Costs for Factored Capital Cost Estimations.Dual 10inch Powerful Line Array Speaker Ds210 Professional, Montreal. vol.13. 166 pp.         [Computer Display Universal Testing Machine]

Mular, A.L. 1982.Feiyang/Temeisheng 10 Inch Professional DJ Wooden Speaker Audio Gd10-02.Neodymium Double 10 Inch DSP Active Professional Powered Line Array Speaker.Fast Delivery 1-Bromo-3 5-Dimethyladamantane CAS 941-37-7/941 37 7/941377/702- 79 -4/702 4/702794, Montreal. 265 pp.         [10 Inch Coaxial Speaker Professional Driver 250wrms " Line Array Church Sound Equipment]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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