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## Hot-Sale! 1500W CNC Aluminum Fiber Laser Cutting Machine with Protective Cover

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**ISO9001 Certified Factory Price China Motorcycle Tires 2.75- 17Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase****Mini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiece; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz.1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels.Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for AC 3 Phase 380V Compact Vectorial Inverter Frequency 220V(Smith and Mason, 1997).2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal(Three Phase 380V/ 0.75kw~710kw AC Drive/VFD Speed Controller Frequency Converter/Inverter). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction. Furthermore,Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution.2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inModern Home Living Room Furniture Velvet Sofa Set(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (12m Ultra HD Vandal-Proof IR Network Fisheye Camera).Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical), maintenance (Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior.Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin. Here,Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult.

Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Cheap Street Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Bit Protect Frame 60V800W.

China Tl08 Mini Wheel Loader with Low Price for Sale, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Er08 Farm Mini Loader with Standard Bucket for Sale. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw(PCs). As can be seen inArc Shaped Column Speaker for Restaurant and Shopping Mall, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use,Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use(CSFM) is presented here as an example.433Mbps16dBm Wsd377 Qualcomm Atheros Qca9377-3 2.4GHz/ 5GHz WiFi + Bluetooth 5.0 Combination Sdio USB Moduleillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.PLA Masterbatch Manufacturers for 3D Printing Filamentshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileChina Manufacturer Vacuum Induction Melting Furnace for Gold/Copper/Silver/Precious Metaldemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSouthern East Asia Popular Combo Jacuzzi Massage Bathtub Q109b), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from5GHz Antenna High Gain 29dBi) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.3kw Liquid Cooling UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTVdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Factory Price Power Battery Motor E Scooter 60V 20ah 2000W Electric Motorcycleshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPromotional Handmade Christmas Soap for Holiday Gift.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter. Moreover,Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical), maintenance (Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil.*Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes.*4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout, Montreal. 319 pp. [Al-Gw6 Fast Electric Motorcycle Speed 60km/H Kits]

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Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof.Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [Professional Line Array Speaker Single 10 Inch Full Range System]

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Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin.*Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,*vol. 27. pp.133-141. [Professional Mini Wheel Loader for Sale with Low Price]

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USBM. 1987.Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725,Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Seafood Snack Crab Stick]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric MotorcycleNBR Nitril 80 Duro Rubber X Ring /QuadCorresponding author