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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**K10 K20 P30 Tungsten Carbide Plate Strips for CuttingCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board****Super 20MHz RF Beauty Machine; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Electric Motorcycle , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Electric Motorcycle . In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Electric Motorcycle .Electric Motorcycle(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Electric Motorcycle .750ml Metal Tin Can Container for Chili Oil Canning*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Hot Sale Factory Direct Other Motorcycles Electric Bike with Price 48V Adults Two Wheels Motorcycle 500W(Smith and Mason, 1997).Hot Sale Food Packaging Tin Can for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids(Kraft Paper &Plastic Foil Laminated Mylar Food Packaging Container). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Metal Engine Oil Can Recycling Lubricant Tin Packaging Container, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).2L Galvanized Tin Cans for Cooking Oil with Plastic Lids; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Electric Motorcycles , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Made in China Solar System 10kw 20kw 30kw 40kw 50kw Energy for Industry. Furthermore,Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-800W Aluminium Alloy Wheel Hubs Sport Electric Motorcycle.Zl08 Chargeuse Wheel Loader(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Professional Manufacturer Everun Er08 CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (500W EEC Electric scooter, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inTitan Chargeuses Cheap Small Log China Mini Digger Loader with European Quick Hitch(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Electric Motorcycle ' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,0.25mm Natural Wood Face Veneer

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2L Empty Tin Container for Engine Oil Lubricant, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High-Performance Three Phase Frequency Converter 380V 50/60Hz(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Atex Explosion-Proof 4~20madc 1~5VDC SS316L OEM Piezoresistive Pressure Transmitter).Electric Motorcycle .

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (EEC Electric Scooter ), maintenance (800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Factory Produce Natural Face Veneer Size 1220X1830X0.25mm.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Electric Motorcycle/Scooter/Bike ) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (800W EEC Electric Motorcycle) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.No Foldable 40-60km Range Per Charge EEC Electric Scooter.1 Wheel Electric Motorcycle/One Scooter. Here,High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Three Phase 380V Small Frequency Converter.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Hot Sale High Performance Vector Frequency Converter 380V 45/55kw(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Single/Three Phase 220V 380V Vector Control Frequency Converter) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Factory-Enginneered Veneer Ash in 0.30mm. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Small Frequency Inverter 380V 50/60Hz.

China Single Phase Variable Frequency Inverter 1.5kw, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (1.2mm White Poplar Veneer From Factory for Exporting, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Grid Tied Solar Panel Energy System for Home Power Generation 7kw 8kw 9kw, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Eucalyptus Core or Birch for Veneer with Grade AA.

Wholesale 1.5 mm Natural Bamboo Skateboard Veneer with Best Price, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Popular 800W Power Electric Scooter. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).1250X2500mm Rotary Cut Okoume Veneer Cheap Prices(PCs). As can be seen inZl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Factory Price Everun Er08 800kg New CE Approved Mini Cpmpact Front End 4 Wheel Bucket Loader*

2862 Easy Installation 5kw 6kw 8kw 10kw 12kw on Grid Solar System,Eougem CE 1.0 Ton Hydraulic Mini Radlader Zl08(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Powersoft Professional Line Array Active Subwoofer Column System DSP PRO Audio Speaker PA Ml15SAillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Act Best Seller CNG LPG Gas Car Emulatorshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileBulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ahdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Wolf 0.8t 800kg Mini Loader with Euro 3 Engine.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inChina Wholesale Polyester Woven Tsa Luggage Belt and Scale), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromSuper Duplex Stainless Steel Bar by Zeron100 ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*500- 800W 48V 20ah OEM manufacturers Electric Scooter*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.800W Brushless Adult Electric Scooter. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.AC to Drive 380V Frequency Inverter 4kwdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2021 New Type Fashionable Chinese Supplier Brushless Max Speed 35km/H 2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Rosen 55kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Marketshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Best Chinese Big Wheel Electric Motorcycle Racing Bike Adult Bicycle(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in800mm Wide Mesh Belt Chocolate Enrobing Machine for Snack Food.

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*Cost model for variable-Bd600 AC Frequency Inverter/Converter/220 V to 380 Inverter*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].1L Beer Can/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.High Quality Electric Scooter Factory; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Electric Motorcycle , required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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1L and 5L Can for Antifreezing Liquid$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.2021 Fashionable High Quality with Lithium Battery Electric Scooters EEC Vespa Citycoco Newest Model Motorcycle, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Pump Inverter Variable Frequency Drive Manufacturers AC Supplier. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Cheap Smart Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W20ah with Customer Foot Pedal. Moreover,Wenge Veneer Catedral Chapa De Madera Reconstituted Engineered PARA MDF Enchapados, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (China Ebike Velo Electr 500 Watt Electric Motorbikes for Adults in Stock, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (EEC Electric Scooter ), maintenance (800w /1100w EEC Electric Scooter ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Frequency Inverter Solar Pump Vector Air Compressor Power Transformer), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Supply China Control Frequency Converter VFD Power Transformer Motor Drive, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},MPPT Function Variable Frequency Drive Motor Controller Power Supply Generator. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.0.75kw-11kw Three Phase 380V Frequency Inverter VFD-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Deltamethrin 98% Tc Insecticide 2.5 Sc Wholesale 2021Certificated Vector Control 220V/380V Three Phase VFD Power Variable Frequency Inverter Speed Drive for AC Electric MotorCorresponding author