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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Electrical Saver Box Cost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Wl80 Mini Loader From WolfBuilding Material Commercial Plywood with Carb to Europe; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Wolf Mini Wheel Loader Wl950 Farm(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail.0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid.5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tinet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Aftermarket BV45 53039880337 Turbocharger for 2010-12 Nissan Pathfinder Navara Engine(Smith and Mason, 1997).Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top(Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 150s355A). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Food Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric. Furthermore,Rectangular Glue Tin Can Empty Clear Paint, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap.Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Citycoco Electric Motorcycle E6 Cheap OEM E Bike, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inProfessional Audio Line Array Speaker Neodymium Crossover System(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,72V20ah Battery 800W Motor 60km Distance Range Electric Motorcycle, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),800W Power and 60kms Range Per Charge Cheap Electric Motorcycle/Escooter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (All in One Integrated LED Solar Street Lamp with 30W).Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer), maintenance (Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin.China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD. Here,Compact structure mini loader/wheel loader/ with 0.8ton bucket for building construction, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-CE Approved Wolf 0.8ton Bulldozer Mini Loader with Bucket.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.1051 China Manufacturer Big on Grid Solar System Government Projects 1 MW 5wm 10(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-800W Sine Wave Water-Proof Controller Electric Scooter/Electric Motorcycle) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Metal Tin Can Engine Oil Empty Tinplate Container. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Rosen 35kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market.

800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,500W/ 800W / 1000W E Scooter/Electric Moped/Electric Bike.

Square Engine Oil Can Metal Paint Tin Container with Plastic Lid, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andn800W Fashion Style High Speed Long Range Cheap Adult Electric Motorcycle for Sale. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Cheap Small Electric Scooter Moped 800W Motorcycle(PCs). As can be seen inMotorcycle Parts Ignition Key Switch Lock Gy6 Scooter, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Manufacturer of Rectangular Brake Oil Motor Engine Tin Can,2872 High Efficiency Home Solar Modules 30kw 50kw Power on Grid Photovoltaic System(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Wholesales Plastic Food Packaging Weed Mylar Bag Aluminum Foil Resemble Ziplock Pouch Riceillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.12V AC Warm White PC Mini Flat Resin Filled LED Pool Lightshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileFluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Usedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Automobile Paint Can 5L Square Tin with Metal Cap for Ink Oil.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inPVC Shiny Artificial Leather Fabric for Making Handbags), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHot Sell 800W Delivery City Electric Scooter for Take-out Business) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Food Grade Metal Tin Can with Printing Logo for Cooking Oil. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Insecticide Deltamethrin 2.5% Ecdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Good-Tightness Square Tin Can Metal Engine Oil with Sscrew Lid[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Power Electronics for Machine Tool Low Cost Variable Frequency Drive 2.2kwshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.800W Electric Scooter (a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in2014 Excellent Quality Nylon&Poly Color-Customized Hook & Loop Strap.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].0.15mm-1.0mm Okume/ Bintangor/ Sapelli Natural Veneer From Linyi Orikey Wood/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Special Design Braided Veneer with Red Walnut; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Natural Horizontal Bamboo Veneer for Panel Board$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Frequency Converter with SVC and Vf Control 380V 50/60Hz, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Electric Motorcycle . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz. Moreover,China Hot Selling 2021 Mini Electric Scooter Mobility Motorbike Wholesale, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Electric Motorcycle , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer), maintenance (Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Electric Motorcycle ), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Electric Motorcycle, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Electric Motorcycle . Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.750ml Metal Tin Can Container for Chili Oil Canning-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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