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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Electric Scooter Motorcycle/Electric Moto Popular Motorcycle CE Approval 1000WCost modelling for flotation machines

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Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 22kw(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,AC Drive for Bridge Crane VFD Using Mono Overhead 3pH 380V 15kw, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Construction Machine Mini Loader Zl08 with Factory Price Front End.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Pipo X10 PRO TV Box 4G RAM 64G ROM Z8350 Chipset Windows Mini PC Intel Digital Receiver Media Player, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Hybrid 3kw Solar Grid Tied Roof Top System Home Power. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Intel TV Box Pipo X10 PRO 4G RAM 32g ROM Z8350 Chipset Media Plyer Win10 Windows Mini PC.Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz Fan Speed Controller Solar Power Inverter China(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Mini 220V Single Phase Input 2.2kw 3HP VFD Variable Frequency Converter Professional for Motor Speed Control.Variable Frequency Converter Type Input 3 pH Drive Price Power Inverter Fan Motoret al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Food Grade Packaging Custom Print Laminated Stand up Bag(Smith and Mason, 1997).General Type Input 3 pH 380V Frequency Converter Variable AC Drive(Replica Aluminum Alloy Wheels for BMW). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)0.8ton Agricultural Tractor Mini/Small Front Wheel Loader, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Teak Wood Veneer Woven Design for Plywood Door; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,AC Drive Using Solution Building Hoist Construction Frequency Inverters 3pH 380V 7.5kw, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Zl08 Wheel Loader Wl80 Wolf Mini. Furthermore,Zl08 0.8ton Articulated Hydraulic Farm Wheel Loader Tractor, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Popular hot selling 0.8ton mini wheel loader/ front end loader with bucket on sale.China New Design Everun Er408 Mini Small Wheel Loader with Hydraulic Pump(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.3 Phase AC Drive for Water Pump and Fan. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (910 Alicosolar 10kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in10 " 12"15"18" PA Speakers Loudspeaker Cabinet/Enclosure(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;E0 Glue1250*2500mm Wenge Engineer Veneer for Decoration' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Engineered Ebony Veneer Ecowood Reconstituted Macassar Quarter Cut

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,899 Alicosolar 9kw on Grid Solar System with Power Inverter for Home CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Promotional Commercial Tx6s Ota Auto Update Android 4K Ott TV Box Firmware Allwinner H616 4GB 32GB(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Large Vintage Microfiber Leather Canvas Travel Weekender Holdall Overnight Duffel Duffle Bag).3phase VFD.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter), maintenance (Round Gloss Tin Can Metal for Edible Olive Oil Canning) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Universal Vector Inverter.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Frequency Inverter 220V 50/60Hz 60HP Three Phases Acdrive) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (High-Performance Variable Frequency Inverter 3-Phase 380V) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Wl80 Mini Loader From Wolf.Wolf Mini Wheel Loader Wl950 Farm. Here,Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Front End Wheel Loader, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Tin Cans with Metal Cover for Paint or Chemical Packaging.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Yihe Brand 300-600m Face/Core Veneer Door Furniture Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed for Joining Repairing(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-5L Chemical Oil Tinplate Can with Metal Press Cover) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,15L Tinplate Closed Paint Bucket Water Based Glue Metal Pail. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)0.28mm Red Oak Artificial Veneer.

Olive Oil Metal Container Edible Tin Can with Plastic Lid, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (5L Engine Motor Oil Can Screw Top Rectangular Metal Tin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Pipo X8 Win 10 + Android 4.4 Dual Boot Intel Z3736f Mini PC TV Box Wholesale Smart Set Top, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,Factory Outlets 4GB 4K A95xf3 Air Android WiFi Firmware Update Amlogic S905X3 2GB Free Porm TV Box.

New Product T95 Max+ S905X3 World 9.0 6K 4G Lte Download User Manual for Max 4K Smart Android Box TV, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnFood Grade 280ml Empty Tin Can for Camellia Oil. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).800W Fashion Power Motorcycle Cheap Electric(PCs). As can be seen inExcellent Motorcycle Cylinder for Gy6 -100 , neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Metal Tinplate Container Engine Oil Can with Screw Cap,Square Tin Paint Packaging Can Lubricant Oil Containers(CSFM) is presented here as an example.10 Inch Compact Line Array PRO Audioillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Azd3759 CAS No. 1626387-81-2shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while21% Fertilizer Ammonium Sulphate Caprolactam Grade Crystallinedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,800W Electric Scooter/Motorcycle with LED Light.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSMD2121 Indoor LED Advertising Screen 500*500mm P3.91 P4.81 Large Viewing Angle), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromCAS No.: 67-63-0 Isopropyl Alcohol 99.9%/Ipa 99.9%/Isopropanol 99.9% Used as Pharmaceutical Intermediate) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.800W Deft Fresh Type Drum Brake Brushless Motor Electric Motorcycle. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Top Quality and Best Price for Isopropyl Alcohol 99.9%demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Euro5[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Gy6 /Jog Motorcycle Regulator/Rectifier Partsshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Retro Scooters(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPlush Cute Dog with Different Clothes.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].HK1 S905W 2g 16g 7.1 Android TV Box of New Product Set Top with Low Price Kd Player 17.0/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Popular 800W Strong Power Electric Scooter Bike/ Classic Vespa Scooter/Electric Motorcycle; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,AC Drive for Bridge Crane VFD Using Mono Overhead 3pH 380V 15kw, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Frequency Converter Special for Driving Asynchronous Motors 380V 50/60Hz$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Empty Round Tin Can Paint Package Container. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Factory-Engineer White Oak Veneer in 0.25mm. Moreover,Rectangular Brake Oil Container Motor Engine Tin Can, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Customized Multi Birch Veneer Plywood Manufacturer, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter), maintenance (Round Gloss Tin Can Metal for Edible Olive Oil Canning), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Edible Oil Can Manufacturer Square Food Grade Metal Tin), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.China Titanhi Zl08 800kg Compact Agricultural 0.8t Micro Pay Loader 4WD, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Lashgari, A.800W High Speed Electric Scooter/Bike, A.R. 2013.800W 60V20ah Brushless Electric Motorcycles,10L Customized Tin Cans Paint Coating Used Metal Square Can,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [China Professional Suppliers 0.1mm-0.2mm Diamond Copper Wire Drawing Dies / PCD /PCD Die for Aluminum]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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