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## New Design Wood Chipper Machine Garden Shredder Pellet Factory Year-End Promotion

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**5GHz Antenna High Gain 16dBi PanelCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.1L Empty Round Tin Can with Plastic Lid Manufacturer****1L Empty Round Edilbe Cooking Oil Metal Tin; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.1L Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can with Cover(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Gy6 -125/ 150ccformaular.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Double Chasis Cargo Tricycle, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Euro 5 Gy6 -50cc 4t Moped. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Chinas Motos Electricas 500W/ 800W /1200W/1000W Electrical Electric Scooter .Water Proof Closed Box Delivery Tricycle(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

3840watts 50Hz 80A Built-in Inverter Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate.Barrow Mini Dumper with Three Wheels*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Color Custom Direct Injection Diesel Engine Used for Generator Set(Smith and Mason, 1997).3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Inverter(Upgraded New Grille Skytone Vera 12inch Top Plus 18inch Sub Line Array PRO Audio DJ System). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Oil Petrol Anti Corrosive Tantalum Diaphragm Pressure Sensor, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).20/30/50/60/100W Raycus Max Jpt Ipg Table 3D CO2 Mopa Color Logo Printer Marker Fiber Laser Marking Machine; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Gy6 150cc EEC Scooter, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.250W- 800W Handicapped Mobility Scooter for Old People with Basket. Furthermore,with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A 220V AC Output Enjoys 2 Years Warranty.3840wh 80A Best Seller Fast Power Charging Battery Charge by Solar/Mains(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Pedal E-Bike / Scooter Electric Bicycle 500W/ 800W. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Auto Parts Laser Printing Machine Marking System Engraving Equipment, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inChina Top Company Supply 3-Bromopropyne CAS 106 96 7 with Best Price(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Water-Proof Cover 3 Wheel Cargo Gasoline Trike' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,with Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh Enjoys 2 Years Warranty

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Solid State Inductive Heating Furnace for Tyre Cord Wire, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Factory Supply Biomass Rice Husk Charcoal Making Machine(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Sea Freight from China to Belgium Meerhout).Hospital Equipment Portable Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at Best Price.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Ce Approved Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Use Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner), maintenance (Outdoor/Home Use Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Low Failure Rate High Efficiency Induction Metal Heating Machine .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Portable Ultrasonic Ophthalmology Ophthalmic a/B Scan) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Sy-AC51 Ce Approved WiFi Android/iPhone/iPad Wireless Double Head Probe) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Camping Power / RV LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty.Hot Sale Mini High Frequency 25kw Induction Heater Price. Here,Convex Series Probe Type Wireless Mini Ultrasound Scanner, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Hot Selling 2ND Generation Ultrasound Bone Densitometer(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Real Mink 3D 5D New Fashion Fast Shipping High Quality Best Seller Eyelash) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,High Quality Economic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Ophthalmology . MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Ut-O500 Diagnosis System Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan for Eye.

Ophthalmic a Scan and Pachymeter Combined Unit, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Ophthalmic Optical Pachymeter & Biometer / a Scan , Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}1000MHz FTTH Trunk Line CATV Mini 2 Ports Signal Amplifier, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Roadside Emergency Set Auto Car Tool Kit.

SA831r Outdoor Return Path CATV Trunk Amplifier, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*2200 Degree Vacuum Hot Pressing Furnace High-Temperature for Cim. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Portable Induction Heater for Crystal Growth(PCs). As can be seen inMade in China PA Speaker System Three Way Loudspeakers, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Dry diaphragm membrane sanitary pressure transducer*

Mobile Digital High Frequency Mini Induction Brazing Welding Equipment for Sale,High Frequency Induction Heater (CSFM) is presented here as an example.Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp Underwater LED Light 18watt 12V RGB with Two Years Warrantyillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.50cc 150cc 200CCC 300cc Adult EPA/Ce 3 Wheel Gas Scootershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileFree Sample Local Anesthetic Novocaine Painkiller Cream Solution Procaine CAS: 51-05-8demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Industrial Vacuum Atmosphere Hot Pressing Sintering Furnace.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inDurableled Channel Letter Sign for Customized), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromoff Grid PV Panel Generator Solar Energy Power System 3kwh for Home/Outdoor Lighting) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Maintence Grease Gun 21V LCD Real Time Information Reading Hand Tool. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Automatic Tool Changing CNC Router with 9kw Hsd Spindle. Wood Door Carving Atcdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Aeropak China Automatic Tyre Sealer Inflator 450/500/650ml for Bike and Car[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.5kw Grid Tied Solar Inverter Three Phase for Home Useshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.High Quality Melamine MDF with Competitive Price Ce Carb Grade(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inUnique Product Modern Nordic Chandelier Installation Living Room Silk Cocoon.

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*Cost model for variable-Glue E1 Fsc Carb Green/Red Core Plain Mositure-Proof MDF*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].The Best Sale and Low Price Chinese Brake Lathe /min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Melamine MDF E1 E0 Carb P2 Grade; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Solar & Mains 3840wh 80A 220V Outlet Battery for Appliances with Rated Power Under 1500W, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Transparent Ceramics Hot Press Sintering Furnace. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.6mm Raw Plain MDF ISO9001/ Carb for Decoration, indicated in1-Bromo-3, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

ISO$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Se0/Fsc/ Carb Naf 18mm MDF Board, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)HPM410W Submerged Integrated Level Sensor Transmitter. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Industrial Mining All Welded Anti Explosion Pressure Transmitter. Moreover,GAS Wind Pressure Transmitter with Data Display, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Carb /SGS Wood Fiber New Design 1220*2440mm Melamine MDF, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Ce Approved Ho-100 Eyes Hospital Use Ophthalmic Ultrasound Scanner), maintenance (Outdoor/Home Use Built-in LiFePO4 Energy Storage Portable Generator 3.8kwh 80A Enjoys 2 Years Warranty), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Coconut Shell Carbon Charcoal Making Machines Production Line), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.2440mmx1220mmx3mm Carb P2 Formaldehyde Raw HDF Board, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Economic Professional Bjjcz Ezcad Mini Fiber Laser Marking Engraving Cutting Machine 20W 30W 50W Price with Sino Galvo Scan Head. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Light Color Plain MDF Boardlight Board/Raw MDF/E2/E1/E0/ Carb P2 /Raw-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

CE Approved Wolf Wl80 Zl08 Mini Wheel Loader for FarmRaw Petro High Temperature Sapphire Pressure TransmitterCorresponding author