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## Portable Hand Sanitizer Kill 99.9% Germs

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Retinoic Acid CAS No. 302- 79 -4Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase****1000ml 500ml 250ml Airtight Glass Water Juice Bottle with Clip Top 1L; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance.Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for High-Performance Frequency Converter/AC Drive 380V 50/60Hz(Smith and Mason, 1997).4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz(ISO9001 Certified Factory Price China Motorcycle Tires 2.75- 17). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal. Furthermore,Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard.High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inMini L18 Tws V5.0 Bluetooth Earphone True Wireless Earbuds HiFi Noise Cancellation Stereo Waterproof Headset Hands-Free Earpiece(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof

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The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (8000kg Load and Unloading Ramps Rruck Container Loading Ramp).Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box), maintenance (2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale.Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer. Here,3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady.

Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (350-1000W Pedal Assist Electric Scooter Parts 10 Inch Mobility Tricycles Motorcycles Chinese for Adults, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}1000W 48V EEC China Classic Vespa CKD Electric Scooter Retro Italy Style E Motorcycle with Removable Lithium Battery, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,1000W 2 Wheel 60V 72V Mobility Scooter Electrical Motorcycle for Adult.

Chinese Best Cheap Electric Scooter Korea Hot Sell 48V Thailand Motorcycle with Pedal, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Hot Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W Power Motor with USB. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Factory Direct Supply High Speed Electric Motorcycle Throttle Control Bike(PCs). As can be seen inModern Home Living Room Furniture Velvet Sofa Set, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Industrial Energy Saving Device Made in China

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Cheap Street Electric Scooter Motorcycle with Bit Protect Frame 60V800W*

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Natural Material Veneer Hand Made Woven for Wall Decorationshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while433Mbps16dBm Wsd377 Qualcomm Atheros Qca9377-3 2.4GHz/ 5GHz WiFi + Bluetooth 5.0 Combination Sdio USB Moduledemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inDHL Agency Shipping to Macau Japan Brunei), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromPlastic Sugar Fruit Salt Food Packaging Aluminum Foil Mylar Spice Bags Transparent Clear Stand up Zip Lock Resealable Beef Nuts Rice Coffee Cereal Tea Pouch) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2386 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.5GHz Antenna High Gain 29dBidemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Easy Installation Good Quality Factory Supply Grid Tied 10kw 12kw 15kw on Solar System for Commercial and Industrial Use[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.6A Grade Indian Beardshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw Tied(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inZh-980slj Well Made Automatic Folder Gluer Making Machine.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Frequency Converter for Water Pump. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter. Moreover,Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box), maintenance (2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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