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## 22 Gauge Zinc Galvanized Corrugated Steel Roofing Sheets

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Tycorun Solar DC to AC Inverter 3kw/4kw/5kw/6kw on Grid Tied Single Phase for HomeCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm****Wolf Mini Loader Wl80 with Grass Cutter; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult.3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging.1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Disperse Violet 26 Dyes(Smith and Mason, 1997).Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W(800ml Square Metal Containers). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.0.8t 800kg Small Loader. Furthermore,Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric.Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inAuto Feeding Inner Mounted Pipe Tube Beveling Engine(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Pre-Dispersed Rubber Chemicals Masterbatch CAS No. 9035-99-8 S-80).3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter), maintenance (10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase. Here,15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz.

1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal.

Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant(PCs). As can be seen inElectric Motorcycle , neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction*

Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers,Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Cheap Price Electric Four Wheels Environment Protection Car for Adultsillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Steel Copper Aluminum Iron DOT Peen Marking Machine with Rotaryshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 160sn827demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,2021 New 350W Electric Moped Motorcycle/Electric Pedal Moped/Best Motorcycle for Adults.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inHot Sell Cheap Flower Shaped Jewelry Rhinestone Brooch), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromSingle 5"Two-Way Full-Range Loudspeaker Small Scale Indoor with Tx5c) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.High Efficiency Thick Wall Pipe Pipeline Piping System Beveling Machinedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.New Pattern Design 17.5-25 20.5-25 26.5-25 off Road Tyreshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inCustom Aluminum Material Silver/Gold/Nickel/Brass Darts Shape Cuff Link/ Cufflinks for Decoration.

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*Cost model for variable-High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale. Moreover,Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter), maintenance (10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Ce Approved 10 Inch Automatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Stc-3 3kw Stc-5 5kw Stc-10 10kw Three Phase AlternatorCorresponding author