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vol.117 issue1Flotation of mercury from the tailings of the Agh-Darreh gold processing plant, IranÂauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017



Plastic Pipe Production Extrusion LineCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Factory Price Portable Mini Tws Bluetooth Earphone Headphone for Huawei55 Inch Stand Alone Digital Free Standing LCD Advertising Display; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Hot Selling Headset Bluetooth Wireless Headphone with Charger Case(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Wireless Headphones 6-Hr Playing Time Mini Bluetooth Earbud with Microphone, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Super Design Mini Earpieces Headset Wireless Earphones for Huawei.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


PVC Marble Coated Decorative Sheet Production Line Extruder, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Mini Private Design Tws True Wireless Stereo Headphone for Huawei. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones Wireless Headphones Support HiFi 5 Hours Playtime.Tws 5.0 Wireless Headphone with ND1526p Dual Call 600mAh Charging Box(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Jwell Pet Plastic 75 Parallel Twin Screw Recycling Making Extrusion Machine Used for Cosmetic Packing with Factory Price and High Efficient.Jwell PP EVA|EVOH|PS|PE Plastic Multi-Layer Sheet Recycling Agricultural Co-Extrusion Making Machine for Jelly Packing Factory Price and High Efficientet al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Wspvcc Solar PV Connector Mc4 High Effiency IP 67(Smith and Mason, 1997).T-Handle Tap Wrench Handle M5-M12 Adjustable Ratcheting Hand Tool Accessories(Empty Plastic Bottle 500ml / 1L /1000ml HDPE Trigger Pump Spray Bottles). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)PVC Plastic Marble Board/Plate/Wall Extruder, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Food Additive Granular Dihydrate Disodium Phosphate; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Factory Supply Disodium Phosphate Food Grade, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.E320L/B/C/D Boom Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits. Furthermore,Jwell Plastic PVC Decoration Wallboard Profile Machinery/ Extruder Machine, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,etc.is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Disodium Phosphate Food Grade Manufacturer.99% Tech Grade Disodium Phosphaten Used as Water-Softening Agent(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Msp Industrial Grade CAS 7758-80-7. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Ammonium Polyphosphate APP-II CAS No. 68333- 79 -9, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inoff Load 150cc Motorcycle with High Speed(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;High Quality Disodium Phosphate Sell by Factory' names:

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Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,K20 K30 Tungsten Carbide Thread Rod with Double Helix Hole or Straight

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Customized Carbide Spare Parts Assembly Orifice Main Valve Pulser, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Seal Kits Hyundai R210-7 Boom Cyl Arm Bucketcyl Oil(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Vintage Canvas College School Student Travel Sports Laptop Hiking Backpack).Chinese Manufacture Jcb332/Y6195 Universal Cylinder Seal Kit.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Seal Kits Komatsu PC200-5/6 Boom Cyl Kit), maintenance (Industrial Grade SHMP ) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Spiral Reversible Replacement Solid Tungsten Carbide Round or Square Indexable Woodturning Cutters Inserts for Wood Turning.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (E320L/B/C/D Boom Arm Bucket Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Toothbrush Material Pellets Raw Granules Anti-Static Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.K10 K20 P30 Tungsten Carbide Plate Strips for Cutting.Komastu PC60-6 Arm Cyl Oil Seal Kit. Here,Cat320b/C/D Arm Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Pigment Violet 1 Toner for Ink.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Solvent Violet 59 (SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Solvent Violet 13 for Plastic Application) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Solvent Violet 11. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)Solvent Violet G 49 for Plastic.

Manufacturer ASTM 316L Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Tubes, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Solvent Violet 10b 9, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet Super 2507, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,ASTM A789 S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe.

Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andnSkycron® Disperse Violet 26/HFRL Dyestuff Fabric Dye. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube(PCs). As can be seen inDigital ATSC Receiver Internet TV Set Top Box, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Ce Certification Plastic PP Blue Color Masterbatch,High Dispersing Plastic Antistatic Black Color Masterbatch with PP/PS/PE/ABS/HDPE/LDPE for Packaging Product Material(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Dual 10 " Two Way PA Power Line Array Speakerillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Professional Audio Signal 12" Two-Way Full-Range Speakers PA System with Tq12shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileDiase Professional Speaker Vt-4887 Three Way Dual 8inch Line Arraydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Wireless Earbuds Headphones with Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones True Stereo Tws Charging Case for Sports Drive or Work.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in2021 New Models Laptop Bag Sport Backpack), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from800W Electric Scooter Motorcycle Bicycle with Folding Rack) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Mini Wireless Stereo Tws 5.0 Music Earphone L18. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.190W Professional Full-Range Speaker 4X5inch 97dB High Power Conference Banquet Hall with Ml5h190824demonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Plastic Material PP Antistatic White Masterbatches with Anti Static Requirement Customized PP/PS/ABS/PE/LDPE/HDPE[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Motorcycle Muffler Assy/Exaust Pipe for Scooter Parts Gy6 50/125/150shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Plastic Products Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Film Package(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inRemove Bark Tree Machine.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Plastic Products Virgin Granules Raw Material Light Blue Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Electrical Parts/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Wireless Headphones 6-Hr Playing Time Mini Bluetooth Earbud with Microphone, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Machine. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate , indicated inWolf Loader Wl80 Zl08 Radlader Mini Wheel, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Food Grade Addictive Disodium Phosphate DSP$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous CAS No 7558- 79 -4, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Factory Supply Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate with Best Price CAS 7558- 79 -4. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.K05/K10/ K20 /K30/K40 Tungsten Carbide Flat. Moreover,Changhong Film Stack Flexo Printing Machine, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke Fan, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Seal Kits Komatsu PC200-5/6 Boom Cyl Kit), maintenance (Industrial Grade SHMP ), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Bt Sk Cat Straight Collet Power Multi-Lock Chuck Milling Holder Arbors), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Disperse Violet 26 Dyes, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Pigment Violet 1 or Fast Rose Toner/Fast Lake.Disperse Dyestuff Violet 200% P-CF for Textile,vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562.         [Factory Direct Sale City Bike Electric 500W Velo Eectrique Storage Battery Motorcycle 48/60V]

Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431.         [Car Boot Rear Badge Auto Emblems for Chevrolet]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc.         [Inverter Cabinet VFD Frequency AC Drive 55kw]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement,vol. 20. pp. 141-151.         [Fractional RF & Thermal Machine ]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Factory Price Portable Mini Tws Bluetooth Earphone Headphone for Huawei, A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-Disperse Red/Blue/Orange/ Violet /Black.Minerals Engineering,vol. 81. pp. 103-108.         [Raw Material Anti Epilepsy Topiramate Powder with Best Price]

Kim, G.H., An, S.H., and Kang, K.I. 2004.Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textile, neural networks, and case-based reasoning.Building and Environment,vol. 39, no. 10. pp. 1235-1242.         [High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hz]

Lashgari, A.Factory Cost Qualified Effect Antistatic Plastic Blue Color Masterbatches for Electronic Components, A.R. 2013.Plastic Products Pellets Raw Granulesanti-Static Material Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance,Super Popular Endless Swimming Pool with Jacuzzi SPA for Market,vol. 23. pp. 441-446.         [Vacuum Insulated Stainless Steel Double Wall Beer Mugs]

Loh, H.P., Lyons, J., and White, C.W. 2002. Process equipment cost estimation, final report. National Energy Technoloy Center, DOE/NETL-2002/1169.         [Ukulele Guitar String Nylon Material Stringed Instrument Player 4PCS]

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Mohutsiwa, M. and Musingwini, C. 2015. Parametric estimation of capital costs for establishing a coal mine: South Africa case study.Massage Bathtub,vol. 115. pp. 789-797.         [Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 142s1173]

Montgomery, D.C. and Runger, G.C. 2003. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. 3rd edn. Arizona State University.         [Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia]

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Mular, A.L. 1982.Swedish Soaking Bath Tubs Lowes Plastic Adult Freestanding Bathtub.Laswim Endless Pool/Counter Flow Pool.Double Slipper Two Upper End Freestanding Soaking New Bath Tub, Montreal. 265 pp.         [PA12 Resin Suppliers Glass Fiberpolyamide 12 Nylon Granules]

Mular, A.L. and Poulin, R. 1998. Capcosts 1998.Jacuzzi Massage Endless Swimming Pool Swim SPA.2021 Popular Great Large 5.95 Meter Swimming Pool Laswim Bathtub Hot Tub SPA.Double Slipper Two Upper End Freestanding Soaking New Bath Tub, Montreal. 319 pp.         [4x2 electric pickup truck/ Electric vehicle/ car]

Niazi, A., Dai, J.S., Balabani, S., and Seneviratne, L. 2006.PP Corrugated Roofing Sheet Extrusion Machine.Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,vol. 128. pp. 563-575.         [Pharmaceutical Intermediate CAS 702- 79 -4 99% Pure 1]

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Solvent Violet 10b 9, A.R., Lashgari, A., and Paraszczak, J.J. 2011. Hard-High Quality Cow Poultry House Farm/ Greenhouse Ventilation Fan Made in China.Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,vol. 27. pp.133-141.         [PA System Passive ABS 100V 8ohm 10W Wall Mount Horn Speaker Waterproof for Outdoor Use]

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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

0.75kw 1HP AC Frequency Inverter3-Amino-4-Pyrazolecarboxamide Hemisulfate Salt CAS No 27511- 79 -1Corresponding author

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