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## DC-023A Pin=1.65mm Socket Electronic Wall

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**30Hz J45 Worldwide Download User Manual for Android Case DDR4 4GB/128GB Octa-Core 2021 Control 4G Internet Set Top TV BoxCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Win10 TV Box Pipo X9s Z8350 Chipset 4G 64G Media Player Win Smart Digital Receiver****Glass Bottle 1L Empty 1000ml Milk; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Variable Speed Inverter China Frequency Converter AC(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Natural Material Veneer Hand Made Woven for Wall Decoration, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.458 Alicosolar High Efficiency 10kw on Grid Solar System Kit Home with CE/TUV/ISO for Use.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

5kw Single Phase Home Grid Tied Solar Power System, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Hot Sale 15kw Grid Tied Solar Photovoltaic Power System. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,5kw Inverter Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home.975 Solar 30kw 40kw on Grid Tie Power System for Factory/House Roof(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Rosen 55kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market.Cheap Factory Price China Supplier 1000W Adult Electric Scooters/Electric Motorcycle for Sale*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Supply 99% Purity 3-Amino-4-Pyrazolecarboxamide Hemisulfate (Smith and Mason, 1997).Hot Cheap Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah for Adult From China(1L /1000ml Extra Virgin Olive Oil Metal Can). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Luxury 350W 2 Wheel Electric Bike Scooter/Electric Moped with Pedals Motorcycle Scooter, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Cheap Cute Electric Scooter with Foot Pedal 60V800W20ah From China; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,China Qingzhou Titan Zl08f 0.8ton Mini Small Garden Tractor Front End Wheel Loader, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Three Phase 220V Frequency Converter with Vector Control. Furthermore,China Frequency Converter Variable Speed Drive, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-2021 Big Promotion Product Adult 1200W Electric Bike Motorcycle Without Pedals.Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz 200HP(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Factory Price Wholesale 4oz-32oz Empty PVC Glue Tin Can with Brush. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Okoume Veneer, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inStainless Steel Metal Rotray Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Aluminum(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Luneng Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Hot Sale Factory Direct Easy Open Tin Can for Food Cannery

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,968 Solar 30kw 40kw on Grid Tie Power System for Factory Roof, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),0.15mm Rosewood Veneer(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Fruity Smell Perfume in 2021 U. S).Interior Decorative Woven Veneer Customized Style.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (4WD Wheel Loader Manufacture Small Radlader 1.0 Ton Mini780), maintenance (Farm Machinery Zl08f Mini Wheel Loader with 4 in 1 Bucket) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Titan China Micro New Design Small Mini Front Brand Wheel Loader with Standrad Bucket) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.0.6mm----2mm AAA Grade White Poplar Wood Veneer for Plywood Usage. Here,Chinese Suppliers B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Wolf Baumaschinen Zl08 Radlader with Canopy.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Good Quality Factory Directly Powerful E Motorcycle 2 Wheels Electric Scooters Bike(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Quarter Cut Ebano Makassar Chapa De Madera PARA Cocina Puerta) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,0.25-1.0mm Hot Sale Natural Red Beech Veneer for Furniture. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Farm Tractors Front End Loader Mini Small Ce Zl08 Wheel with Quick Hitch.

Cute City Electric Scooter 600V800W14ah Lithium Battery for Adults, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Natural Wood Veneer Oak /Cherry/Walnut MDF Board, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Zl08 0.8ton Mini Tractor Backhoe Front End Farm Wheel Loader Price List.

Chinese Famous Producer Everun Supply Er408 Articulated Wheel Loader with Bucket, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*0.3mm Rotary Cut Red Wood Veneer. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Factory-Quater Cut Okoume Veneer /Mahogany in 0.50mm(PCs). As can be seen in10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Cheap Price Zl08 0.8ton China Mini Articulated Hydraulic Front End Tractor Loaders

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin*

Gurjan Veneer Keruing,Everun CE Approved 0.8 Ton Front End Loader(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Recycle Stand up Pouch Zip Lock Dried Biodegradable Kraft Paper Bag Food Packaging Manufacturersillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Vegetable and Fruit Fertilizer Crystal Caprolactam Grade Ammonium Sulphateshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileElectric Motorcycle demonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Empty Lubricant Oil Tin Can Packaging for Motor.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inNatural Silver Wave Black/White/Beige/Grey/Pink/Viote Marble High Quality Black Slabs for Commercial Interior Floor Covering), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromBest Chemical Supplier Niche Customs Guaranteed New BMK Powder CAS: 5413-05-8) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.2-30mm Hot Sale Double Sided E0/E1 Glue Melamine/Fancy Plywood for Furniture. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Double 10'' Compact Active Line Arraydemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,New Products Customized Support 1080P Decoder Box H. 265 TV with Internet Port[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.10 Inch Powerful PRO Wood PA Bluetooth Audio Mixer Speakershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.2393 Alicosolar Easily Install 10kw on Grid Solar System 10kVA Kit with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPneumatic stainless steel pneumatic membrane valve.

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As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].970 Solar 30kw 40kw on Grid Tie Power System for Factory Roof/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Best Price Food Tin Metal Box Clip Lid Candy Can; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Natural Material Veneer Hand Made Woven for Wall Decoration, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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High Efficicency Roof Mounting Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.488 Alicosolar High Quality 20kw on Grid Solar System 20000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)969 Solar 30kw 40kw on Grid Tie Power System for Factory Roof. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.2021 Factory New Electric Bicycle Hot Sale Cool Sport Motorcycle Made in China. Moreover,Rosen 9kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Frequency Converter 200HP Three Phases, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (4WD Wheel Loader Manufacture Small Radlader 1.0 Ton Mini780), maintenance (Farm Machinery Zl08f Mini Wheel Loader with 4 in 1 Bucket), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Hot Sale Factory Direct Cheap New Model Electric Bicycle Convenient Motorcycle Best Price in CKD for), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.OEM 6kw Home Grid Tied Solar Power System Without Battery, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Al-Gw6 China Best Adult Electric Motorcycle Scooter for Sale. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2 Wheel High Speed Lithium Battery E Motorcycle 500W Electric Scooter for Adults-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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