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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Cheap Price Door Furniture Faced Artificial Ebony Veneer Recomposed Engineered WoodCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Everun Brand Mini Front End Loader 0.8 Ton Wheel****Mc4y Solar System Waterproof Connector; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Zl08 800kg China Small Garden Tractor with Front Loader Yard(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Yn725 Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Bulk Fashion Smart Electric Scooter 60V800W20ah, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,962 Complete Solar System 40kw on Grid Home with High Quality. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,off Grid 20kw Solar System 20 Kw Panel Kit.Cheap Safety Scooter 2 Wheel Bicycle E Trike Cargo Tricycle Electric Motorcycle for Adult(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Rosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market.475 Alicosolar Good Quality 15kw on Grid Solar System 15000W Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for House Use*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for 30Hz J45 Worldwide Download User Manual for Android Case DDR4 4GB/128GB Octa-Core 2021 Control 4G Internet Set Top TV Box(Smith and Mason, 1997).959 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter(2021 Hot-Sale Lt12 Dual 12" Concert Line Array System). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)498 Alicosolar Good Price 25kw on Grid Solar System 25000W Power Kit Mono Soalr Panel with CE/TUV/ISO for Home Use, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Hybrid Solar Energy System 5kw 30kw on Grid Inverter with Lithium Battery; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,955 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.0.18mm Zebra Wooden Veneer. Furthermore,Europe Popular 5kw Grid Tied Home Solar Energy System with Ce, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-High Grade Block Board for Furniture Produce.954 Alicosolar 33kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.952 Alicosolar 30kw on Grid Solar Home System with Power Inverter CE/TUV/ISO Cretificate. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (32oz Metallic Glue Tin Can_1liter with Screw Cap and Brush, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inLucky Tone SIP Network 15W PA Ceiling Speaker with 24V DC Power Supply and Digital Amplifier(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;High Quality B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Engineered Teak Poplar Birch Veneer' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Underwater Pipeline Inspection Borescope Camera Periscope).Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale), maintenance (Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging.1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint. Here,Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,0.8t 800kg Small Loader. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush.

350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided.

Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin(PCs). As can be seen in3kwh Solar Energy Storage System, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Wolf 0.8t Mini Loader with Grass Fork*

Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket,Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab(CSFM) is presented here as an example.High Quality Argipressine CAS 113- 79 -1 with Best Priceillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Eougem CE 1.0 Ton Hydraulic Mini Radlader Zl08shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while1L Four-Color Cmyk Printing Lubricant Oil Packaging Tin Can for Cardemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inWireless Headphone Micro SD Sport MP3 Music Player), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found from20MHz RF Wrinkle Removal) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Wolf Mini Loader Wl80 with Grass Cutterdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.800ml Square Metal Containersshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inMedical Equipment 8L O2 Concentrator Portable Oxygen Generator.

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*Cost model for variable-3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Hot Sale 48V 20ah Powerful Chinese Chopper Electric Motorcycle 350W for Adults, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, indicated inElectric Motorcycle , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance. Moreover,Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale), maintenance (Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Peonylighting 800W High Pole Stadium LED Flood Yard LampEmbossed PC Solid Sheet Extruder Machine Making Extrusion LineCorresponding author