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## High Quality 3D KN95 Face Mask

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Motorcycle Muffler Assy/Exaust Pipe for Scooter Parts Gy6 50/125/150Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Industrial Grade SHMP ****1500W Frequency Converter Inverter VFD 3phase 380V Best Enclosure 50Hz to 60Hz; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Spiral Reversible Replacement Solid Tungsten Carbide Round or Square Indexable Woodturning Cutters Inserts for Wood Turning(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,E320L/B/C/D Boom Arm Bucket Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Toothbrush Material Pellets Raw Granules Anti-Static Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

K10 K20 P30 Tungsten Carbide Plate Strips for Cutting, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Komastu PC60-6 Arm Cyl Oil Seal Kit. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Cat320b/C/D Arm Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits.Pigment Violet 1 Toner for Ink(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Solvent Violet 59 .Solvent Violet 13 for Plastic Application*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Flying Online Fiber Laser Marking Machine with Conveyor Belt(Smith and Mason, 1997).Solvent Violet 11(Supply 99% Purity 3-Amino-4-Pyrazolecarboxamide Hemisulfate ). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Solvent Violet G 49 for Plastic, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Manufacturer ASTM 316L Uns S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Tubes; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Solvent Violet 10b 9, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet Super 2507. Furthermore,ASTM A789 S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar.Skycron® Disperse Violet 26/HFRL Dyestuff Fabric Dye(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.ASTM A790 Uns S31803 Seamless Stainless Steel Tube. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Manufacture High Quality PLA Silk Color Masterbatch, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inWolf Loader Wl80 Zl08 Radlader Mini Wheel(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Ce Certification Plastic PP Blue Color Masterbatch' names:

►High Dispersing Plastic Antistatic Black Color Masterbatch with PP/PS/PE/ABS/HDPE/LDPE for Packaging Product Material: based on 36-foot,Wireless Earbuds Headphones with Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones True Stereo Tws Charging Case for Sports Drive or Work,Bluetooth 5.0 Headset Mini Tws True Wireless Earbuds Stereo Bass in-Ear Earphone,Mini Wireless Stereo Tws 5.0 Music Earphone L18, and level control

►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Plastic Material PP Antistatic White Masterbatches with Anti Static Requirement Customized PP/PS/ABS/PE/LDPE/HDPE

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Plastic Products Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Film Package, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Jwell Plastic PVC Foamed Frame Profile Extrusion Machine(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (OTR Tyre 23.5-25 17.5-25 26.5-25).Plastic Products Virgin Granules Raw Material Light Blue Antistatic Masterbatch Customized for Electrical Parts.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia), maintenance (PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Machine) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Water Treatment Disodium Phosphate .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Food Grade Addictive Disodium Phosphate DSP) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous CAS No 7558- 79 -4) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Factory Supply Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate with Best Price CAS 7558- 79 -4.K05/K10/ K20 /K30/K40 Tungsten Carbide Flat. Here,Changhong Film Stack Flexo Printing Machine, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Smoke Fan.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Bt Sk Cat Straight Collet Power Multi-Lock Chuck Milling Holder Arbors(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Disperse Violet 26 Dyes) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Skyzon® Cationic Violet 3R/Cationic Dyes/Cloth Dye. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Disperse Dyestuff Violet S3rl 200% C. I. 63.

Pigment Violet 1 or Fast Rose Toner/Fast Lake, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Disperse Dyestuff Violet 200% P-CF for Textile, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Disperse Red/Blue/Orange/ Violet /Black, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Disperse Dyestuff Violet Recp-Hf 100% for Textile.

Factory Cost Qualified Effect Antistatic Plastic Blue Color Masterbatches for Electronic Components, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Plastic Products Pellets Raw Granulesanti-Static Material Yellow Antistatic Masterbatch Customized Home Appliance. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Super Popular Endless Swimming Pool with Jacuzzi SPA for Market(PCs). As can be seen inInverter Cabinet VFD Frequency AC Drive 55kw, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Fractional RF & Thermal Machine

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Massage Bathtub*

PA Filler Masterbatch for Injection Moulding,Swedish Soaking Bath Tubs Lowes Plastic Adult Freestanding Bathtub(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Raw Material Anti Epilepsy Topiramate Powder with Best Priceillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.High-Performance Frequency Converter Three Phase 380V 50/60Hzshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileUkulele Guitar String Nylon Material Stringed Instrument Player 4PCSdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Laswim Endless Pool/Counter Flow Pool.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inSelf-Adhesive Sticker School Supply Wholesale High Quality Educational Toys), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromJwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Jacuzzi Massage Endless Swimming Pool Swim SPA. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.4x2 electric pickup truck/ Electric vehicle/ cardemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,2021 Popular Great Large 5.95 Meter Swimming Pool Laswim Bathtub Hot Tub SPA[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Pharmaceutical Intermediate CAS 702- 79 -4 99% Pure 1shows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.PP Corrugated Roofing Sheet Extrusion Machine(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inIP65 Waterproof Solar Sensor Wall Light Bulkhead Landscape Lamp.

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*Cost model for variable-Jwell- PVC Plastic Wood-Plastic Vertex Angle Decoration Profile Recycling Extrusion Machine with Factory Price*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Jwell - Thermoplastic Polyurethane Film Extrusion Machine/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Jwell - TPU Roll Car Paint Protection Matt Cast Film Machine; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,E320L/B/C/D Boom Arm Bucket Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Jwell - High Performance Shoes PEVA Hotmelt TPU Film Production Line. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla150p249, indicated in150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Polythene Plastic Sheet Making Machine$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Jwell-Jwell-PVC Plastic Rigid Transparent Sheet Thickness 0.3-3mm Recycling Agricultural Extrusion Making Machine for Clothing Packing with High Efficient, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)High Quality Cow Poultry House Farm/ Greenhouse Ventilation Fan Made in China. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.1HP/2HP/3HP/4HP/5HP Shrimp Pond Fish Farm Aerator Air Ring Blower. Moreover,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla160p3125q, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Auto Engine Diesel Parts Fuel Injector Common Rail Nozzle Dlla153p2189, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Jwell Peek|PTFE Board and Rod Cold Push Bar Recycling Extruder Making Machine for Sealing Ring with Self - Extinguishing|Heat Resistant Chemical Inertia), maintenance (PP/PC Sheet Extrusion Machine), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Xft- 710 Axial Flow Fire Extinguisher Fan), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p274, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla153p049. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla155p273-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Camm, T.W. 1994.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154p332.*Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle Dlla154pn006,*vol. 46, no.6. pp. 559-562. [Sy-AC51 Best Price 128 Elements Wireless Probe with Color Doppler]

Huang, X. X., Newnes, L. B., and Parry, G.C. 2012. The adaptation of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.*International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing,*vol. 25, no. 4-5. pp. 417-431. [Baby diaper maker with pampered Diaper OEM]

INFOMINE. 2013. Mine and mill equipment costs. InfoMine USA, Inc. CostMine Division and Aventurine Engineering, Inc. [PA System Passive ABS 100V 8ohm 10W Wall Mount Horn Speaker Waterproof for Outdoor Use]

Kaiser, H.F. 1960. The application of electronic computers to factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement,*vol. 20. pp. 141-151. [2 Wheel Electric Motorcycle with Lead Battery]

Khalesi, M. R., Zarei, M. J.,Industrial Grade SHMP , A. R., Khoshnam, F., and Chegeni, M. H. 2015. Development of a techno-High Quality Nickel Alloy Monel 400 .*Minerals Engineering,*vol. 81. pp. 103-108. [PA12 Plastic Granule for Injection Molding Polyamide 12 Resin Nylon]

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Lashgari, A.Disperse Violet 63, A.R. 2013.Skycron® Disperse Violet 1/2R 100% Fabric Dye for Polyester,*Disperse Red 11 or Brill Pink 4bn,*vol. 23. pp. 441-446. [Private Label Mini Size Colorful 15ml Antibacterial Kill Germs 99% Credit Card Hand Sanitizer Spray]

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Noakes, M. and Lanz, T. 1993.Detergent Grade Sodium Tripolyphosphate 94% CAS No: 7758- 79 -4.Boring Machine Tools Micro Head F1type CNC Heads Set, Carlton, victoria. 412 pp. [TUV Ce Europe Popular 6000W Grid Tied Home Solar System]

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USBM. 1987.UNS NO2200 Nickel Plate,Machine Tools 65mn Spring Sdc06 Sdc08 Sdc12 Clamping Sdc Collet for Milling-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Hot Selling Plain Slim Fit Hoodies No Pocket Blank Sweatshirts with Labels Private Label Mens]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Mars Solar 5kw on Grid Home Power System 5000W 5kVA 5000 Watts Energy Systems 10kw TiedUt-O500 Diagnosis System Portable Full Digital Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scan for EyeCorresponding author