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## Individual Gel Polish Manicure My Logo Mini UV LED Nail Lamp Finger

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**He-1000ap Ophthalmic Ultrasound a Scan Biometer PachymeterCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Rosen 8kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market****Customized 36V 12ah 10 AMP Electric E Bike Li-ion Battery Pack 48volt Ebike Lithium Ion; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Factory-Slicer Natural American Red Oak Veneer in 0.50mm(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale.2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout.Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Line Array with Accessories for PRO Audio(Smith and Mason, 1997).1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint(Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use. Furthermore,0.8t 800kg Small Loader, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush.350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inDoypack Standing Washing Powder Packaging Bag/Liquid Laundry Detergent Spout Pouch(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Everun Brand 0.8ton Compact Wheel Loader with 4in1 Bucket

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Zl08f Wheel Loader with Rops Cab, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),2HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (White Acrylic Corner Whirlpool Bathtub for 2 Person).7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter), maintenance (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah.3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter. Here,1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use.

4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Round Tin Can for Food Packaging Empty Tinplate.

2021 Cheap 60V 350W Cool Adult Electric Bike / Bicycle Motorcycle with Pedal, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard(PCs). As can be seen inEp Grade Antihistamine Cyproheptadine for Dogs Factory Wholesales CAS: 41354-29-4, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Hot Sale Special Cooking Coconut Oil Tin Can Milk Tank Beverage Cans

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant*

Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction,Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Titan Mini Loader 800kg New Front End Radloader with Spare Parts Best Shipping Agent Serviceillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.0.25-1.0mm Hot Sale Natural Red Beech Veneer for Furnitureshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileHipower Top 10 Speakers Professional Audio PA Loudspeaker 8ohmdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCAS 60207-90-1 Propiconazole 90 Tc 93tc 95tc Low price supplier), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromYellow Color Plastic Masterbatch) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Power Mini Electric Scooter for Lady 60V800W. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Single 12" Plastic Waterproof Speakerdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.500kw Solar Energy System Grid Tied 500kwatt Panel Stationshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.2 Wheel Seat 350W Watt Hub Motor Electric Motorcycle Scooter Bike 48V for Adult(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inPlastic Lid Food Grade 150ml Small Soy Sauce/Vinegar Cooking Oil Glass Bottle.

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*Cost model for variable-10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Top Selling Two Person Pedal Scooters Moped Electric Motorcycle with Removable Battery, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box, indicated inISO9001 Certified Factory Price China Motorcycle Tires 2.75- 17, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical. Moreover,Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter), maintenance (3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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