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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Powered Line Array Active Stage SpeakerCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Hot Model 18W IP68 Cool White PC Resin Filled Wall Mounted Pool Lighting with Edison Chips****1200Mbps Wireless WiFi Extender Repeater/Router Dual Band 2.4 & 5GHz Wps Signal Strong Penetrability; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light with Two Years Warranty(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2021 New E Bike Best Mini Electric for Adults, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Power Saver Device .

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

1liter Empty Paint Tin Can with Lids Factory, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Surface Mounted LED Underwater Swimming Pool Light with CE RoHS IP68 Reports. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,60V800W Electric Scooter with Highlight Rear Box.Empty Canister White Metal Round Packaging Cans Box Tea Tins(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

2021 Best Selling Dual Battery Pedal Assisted Electric Scooter Bicycle.No Flicker Glare 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Edison Chip*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Articulated Loader Mini Compact Wheel with Shovel(Smith and Mason, 1997).Hot Selling X96 Mini Amlogic S905W 1GB 8GB TV Box Android 7.0 4K Full HD Quad Core Smart for Internet(Intelligent Power Saver for Industry Use). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Vintage Chinese Factory Customizable Classical Retro Style Cruiser Ebike Moped, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).Gogo Electric Moped Scooter Opg-Em022 Motor Power 800W 60V20ah Chaowei Tianneng Battery; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,20'' 36V 500W Folding Electric Bike 35km/H with 12ah Lithium Battery, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Electricity Power Saver for Industry . Furthermore,Hidden Lithium Power City Bike Mountain Electric Bicycle 250/350/500/ 800W Ebike, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Malaysia Laser Marking Machines for Jewellery.Enclosed Covered Tricycle with Wagon(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Color Marking 20W Fiber Laser Machine Price for Metal. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Covered Tricycle Passenger Enclosed Cabin 3 Wheel Motorcycle, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inNew Model Chinese Small Loader Front End Wheel for Sale(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Engine 150cc China 3 Wheel Motor Tricycle Chinese Commercial' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,CATV Optical Receiver Module Bgo887bo Excellent Flatness 40 to 860 MHz

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,CATV Amplifier Module Bgy887 24V 22.6db Excellent Return Loss Properties, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),High Efficiency SIM Card Fiber Laser Marking Machine(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (China Supplier Big Scale Qtf12-15 Full Automatic Hydraulic Concrete Hollow Brick Block Construction Equipment).2021 New Machine Grade CO2 Laser Marking with a Discount.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (20W Fiber Laser Color Marking Machine for Colorful on Stainless Steel), maintenance (Mopa Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Black Printing) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,20W Table Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal Stainless Steel.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Portable Handheld Metal Plastic DOT Peen Marking Machine) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with Gain 13dBi) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Dirt Bike for Sport Using with Large Power Engine.Electricity Saver Device . Here,3 Phase 50 - 60Hz Intelligent Power Saver, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-High Efficient Industrial Electric Motor Power Saver.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.EEC 125/300cc Euro 5V Max Scooter-Alex One(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Electricity Power Reducer ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Nylon OTR Bias Tyre/Tire Manufacture E3/L3 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Electrical Saver Box .

Sector Panel Antenna , the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 OTR Tire, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Growatt 2kw on Grid Inverter 2000W Tied for Solar Power System Home, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Motorbike for 320cc with Police Cruiser Using Dry Weight 180kg.

Heavy Duty Truck Tire 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Three Wheel Motor Tricycle Rickshaw Rear Axle. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Gas Powered Adult Tricycle Motor Farm(PCs). As can be seen inAutomatic High Effective Ultrasound Bone Densitometer Made in China, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Motorcar for Both Civilc and Police Using with 320cc Displacement*

Police Using of Motorcycle for Cruiser with Displacement 320cc,High Quality Cylindrical Li-ion 12V 40ah 80ah Rechargeable Lithium Battery Pack for Portable Device(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Jwell-PVC Plastic Foaming|Semi-Skinning Board Recycling Agricultural Making Extrusion|Co-Extrusion Machine for Furniture Decoration Factory Direct Buyillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.3840watts AC Output 80A 50Hz 220V Silent Power Portable Electric Storage and Generator with CE Certificate Built-in Invertershows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while1L and 5L Can for Antifreezing Liquiddemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,7kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inLow-Headroom Electric Wire Rope Hoist), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromMotorcycle Spare Part Oil Switch for Gy6 150) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.45cm Offset Satellite TV Antenna with 200 Hour UV Test. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bardemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,5.8g Omni Antenna/Dual Frequency Antenna 2.4G 5.8g/2400-2500MHz Omi[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Globalipl Body Face Slimming Fine Jaw Line 20MHz Deviceshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inAgricultural Small Rice Milling Machine 6nj-40.

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*Cost model for variable-150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate *

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].2.4-2.5GHz/5-5.8GHz Dual Frequency WiFi Antenna Internet for Things/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.E3/L3 17.5-25 20.5-25 1800-25 Durable Tyres for Scrapers; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2021 New E Bike Best Mini Electric for Adults, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

C Band Satellite TV Antenna 150cm. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Eougem Original Cheap Radlader 0.8ton with Standard Bucket Made in China, indicated inADSS Body Slimming Beauty Machine , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.4000W/5000W off Grid Tied Solar Power System. Moreover,Internet TV Box Linux IPTV Zgemma I55, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (L-Guard Wheel Loader L-5 OTR 45/65-45 Cheap Wholesale Tyres, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (20W Fiber Laser Color Marking Machine for Colorful on Stainless Steel), maintenance (Mopa Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Black Printing), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,High Quality 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric Bike, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Dsola Chinese Supplier Multipurpose Mc4 Y Branch Connector. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Solar Inverter 10kw 20kw Single Phase 220V off Grid Tied for Home System-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Hot Selling 800W Brushless Motor Electric Scooter Motorcycle10'' Inch Ferrite WooferCorresponding author