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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Wolf Mini Loader Wl80 with Grass CutterCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Custom Waterproof and Oil Sealing Round Metal Tin Can****800ml Square Metal Containers; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.CE Er08 Mini Wheel Loader with One-Year Warranty for Sale(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

2021 New Removable Battery 350W Motor Scooter Electric Motorcycle for Adult, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,3 Liter Tin Packing Chemical Can with Spout. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Food Grade Round Tin Can for Welded Milk Powder Packaging.1gallon Round Metallic Tin Can with Metal Handle for Paint(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Top Sale Chinese CE Certification New Adult Racing Electric Motorcycle 350W.Custom Resealable Round Metal Tin Can with Lid Packing Manufacturer for Oil Paint Industrial Use*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Lebekan Aluminum Materials High Power COB LED Flood Light Waterproof Lights 100W 200W 400W 600W 800W(Smith and Mason, 1997).350W 60V 20ah E Scooter Thorttle Motorcycles Electric with Pedals Disc Brake Bicycle for Sale(Auto Feeding Inner Mounted Pipe Tube Beveling Engine). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Fluid Storage Containers Lubricants for Use, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).0.8t 800kg Small Loader; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Factory Direct High Quality Glue Round Tin Cans with Brush, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.350-1500W 48-72V Smart Cheap Motorcycle for Adults Heavy Duty Electric. Furthermore,Cute Street Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Lady's Smart Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W20ah.Reconstituted Composite Woven Veneer Braided(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Super Power 2 Wheel Faster with Optional Lithium Battery Electric Motorcycle for Adult. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Roof Mounting 20kw Grid Tied Solar Power System Home, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inDoor to Shipping Guaranteed New BMK Powder CAS: 5413-05-8 UK Warehouse(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Yn725g Yineng Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw No Cabin' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,7.5HP Three Phase Frequency Converter

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),3HP 1 Phase Frequency Converter(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Wholesale Custom Fashion Jewellery 925 Sterling Silver Diamond Long Earrings for Women).10HP Three Phase Frequency Converter.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase), maintenance (15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Power Smart Electric Scooter with LED Light 60V800W20ah.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (3HP Three Phase Frequency Converter) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (1HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.15HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase.2HP Frequency Converter Vector Single Phase. Here,Solar Energy System 5kw Panel Home Grid Tied Power 6kw 8kw 10kw, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Home Use 6kw Grid Tied Solar Power System with High Performance.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Hot Sale 10kw 10000W off Grid Solar Power System Home Use(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-4kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,1.5kw 3phase Frequency Converter 50Hz to 60Hz. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Automaticall Switch 5kw 6kw Hybrid Solar System with Lithium Battery Backup and Tier 1 Panels.

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whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Pencil Cedar Veneer Medium Denstiy Fiberboards for Stairs, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Technical Wood Veneer MDF Boards for Cupboard.

High Quality Small Metal Tin Can with Open Top Lid for Lubricant, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Long Using Life Shuttering Plywood with Logo for Construction. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbers(PCs). As can be seen inHigh Quality Underwater Swimming Pool Light Decoration LED Lamp, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Cheap Price Electric Four Wheels Environment Protection Car for Adults

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Solar Power System Home 5kw off Grid Tied Solution*

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 160sn827shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileGMP Standard Pharmaceutical Intermediates Raw Powder CAS 102518- 79 -6 Huperzine a with Best Pricedemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Dah Complete on Grid Solar System Easy Install 30kw 50kw Tied Power.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in10oz Ceramic Mug with Special Shape Different Colors), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromHigh Power Speaker Dual 10 " PRO/Professional Audio Line Array ) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.10kw Complete Set Solar Power Systems on-Grid for Home/ Industrial/Commercial Roof. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.New Pattern Design 17.5-25 20.5-25 26.5-25 off Road Tyredemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,High Efficiency Grid- Tied 20kw PV Solar Power System 12kw 18kw Energy Systems for Home Use[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Wholesale Plastic PVC Drainage Sewer Water Supply Electrical Conduit Tube Pipe Production Extrusion Lineshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.0.75kw Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inYishan 160HP swamp track type crawler dozer TS160G with 3-shank ripper.

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*Cost model for variable-Variable Frequency Inverter Solar Pump DC/AC*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Tx6s H616 Allwinner 4K Smart Aluminum Ott IPTV 10.0 Android TV Box/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.2.5L-25L Square Metal Tin Can with Lid for Paint Glue Adhesives Packing; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Innopack Tin Can with Brush Round Oil Cans, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

1 Liter Metal Square Tin Can with Screw Lid for Oil Paint Chemical. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Wholesale 947 Ml/32oz Metal Round Glue Can Tin with Brush Cap, indicated inAcrylic Film Quadrant Frosted Glass Shower Cubicle with Low Tray , and major extrapolation should be avoided.

500ml 16oz Round Metal Glue Tin Can with Screw Top Brush for Chemical$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Alcohol/ Refrigerating Fulid Screw Top Can with Brush Wholesale, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Customized B/C/D/E Grade Wood/Natural Birch Veneer. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.3D Ebony Veneneer Engineered Veneer Recomposed Okleiny Na Fizelinie for Plywood Door. Moreover,Cute Cheap Electric Scooter for Lady of 60V800W20ah From China, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Many Designs Moulded Door Skin for Interior, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (3HP Frequency Converter Vector Three Phase), maintenance (15HP Three Phase Frequency Converter), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Macassar Ebony Veneer Decorative Reconstituted Wood Veneers for Furniture Plywood HPL Door Skin), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Chinese Brand Smallest Turning Radius Rops Fops 0.8 Ton Mini Wheel Loader with Ce EPA, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Bulk Quality Cheap Smart Elecetric Scooter 60V800W for Lady. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Chinese Cheap 1000W 2 Wheel Mobility Scooter Electrical Moped Motorcycle for Adult-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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